March 1, 2011


In addition to sugar-rich, Sawo (Sapodilla) also contain other nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates and fiber food. The fruit is also good for heart health and blood vessels.

Sawo fruit (Achras sapota L) is known to the people of Indonesia. It smells fragrant and sweet taste delicious. In English, known as Sawo Sawo, chikoo, or sapota. In India, Sawo called chikoo, in the Philippines known as tsiko, and in Malaysia ciku. Chinese people refer to as hong xiêm Sawo fruit.

Brown fruit is usually consumed in fresh condition. Taste the sap is still often attached to the mouth. Under conditions ripe, this fruit can be made into a fresh drink or as a mixture of ice cream. However, it has not been cultivated commercially.

Sawo originated from Central America and Mexico. In India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Mexico, Venezuela, Guatemala, and Central America, Sawo fruit has been cultivated commercially. In Indonesia, the Sawo is generally cultivated as garden plants to enjoy the fruit, especially in areas of West Sumatra, Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, East Java and West Nusa Tenggara.

Seeds shiny brown, black or blackish brown. The shape is flat and large. Sawo seeds contain saponins, quercetin, and oil as much as 23 percent. Sawo seeds should not be consumed because of hydrocyanic acid content is high enough to be toxic. Meanwhile, interest Sawo is a key ingredient in parem, namely traditional medicine powder is rubbed on the body in new mothers.

Sawo fruit (Sapodilla) sweet taste that makes this fruit a lot of fans. Sweet taste is due to sugar content in fruit flesh content of 16-20 percent.

Not only sugar, the fruit pulp Sawo is also contained fat, protein, vitamins A, B, and C, minerals iron, calcium, and phosphorus. Sawo fruit nutrient composition can be seen in the table.

Sawo fruit has good mineral content. This fruit is a good source of potassium, ie 193 mg/100 g. On the other hand, Sawo also have low levels of sodium, 12 mg/100 g. Comparison of potassium and sodium content that reaches 16:1 makes the Sawo is very good for the heart and blood vessels.

In addition to potassium-rich, amber also contains a number of other important minerals. Other mineral content per 100 grams of Sawo fruit are: calcium (21 mg), magnesium (12 mg), phosphorus (12 mg), selenium (0.6 mg), zinc (0.1 mg) and copper (0.09 mg).

Sawo is also rich in vitamin C, which is 14.7 mg/100 g. Consumption of 100 grams of 24.5 percent Sawo to meet the body's need for vitamin C every day. Vitamin C can react with various minerals in the body. Vitamin C plays an important role in the metabolism of copper.

In addition, consumption of vitamin C in sufficient quantities can help improve the absorption of iron. Vitamin C can also interact with a variety of other vitamins, like vitamin E that act as antioxidants.

Sawo fruits also contain folic acid, 14 g. mkg/100 Folic acid is needed for the body to the formation of red blood cells. Folic acid also helps prevent the formation of homocysteine which is very harmful for health.

Other vitamins are also contained in the fruit of Sawo is: riboflavin, niacin, B6, and vitamin A. Although can be used as a source of vitamins and minerals, Sawo should not be given to infants because the sap is feared will disrupt the digestive tract.

Sawo fruit also contains a lot of sugar so good to be used as an energy source. However, this fruit is not recommended for people with diabetes mellitus because it can increase blood sugar levels quickly.

Soft and Smooth Sawo are ready to eat is brown. Raw fruit is not good to eat as hard. It was bitter and brown due to the high content of tannin and caustic. Sawo good quality is soft and dark brown.

Problems of form and size does not matter, the most important skin should be smooth. Do not choose a brown that is a cut, scratch, or even the slightest hole. Also, do not choose who has used the sap of Sawo in the skin. Sawo the skin defects had flesh bottom of the damaged or hard.

The fruit is ripe can be stored at low temperatures to prolong shelf life. Ripe fruit is stored at a temperature of 0 degrees celsius can last 12-13 days. Fruit is still raw, when stored at 15 degrees Celsius to survive in good condition for 17 days. Crude Sawo fruit stored at lower temperatures more than 10 days will not mature normally.

To stimulate mature so quickly, Sawo need brooded, after being washed to remove the dead skin. There are several ways of curing. The fruit is placed in a sealed container (eg in a box or bag) for a few days. However, how this will make the fruit ripening is not ripe at the same time. In order to get a ripe Sawo simultaneously, fruit put in place a sealed, then given a carbide or smoked.

This fruit is very prone to microbial contamination because the water content and high nutrients. Geotrichum candidum, Cladosporum oxysporium, and Penicillium italicum are examples of microbes that are often found on Sawo.

To keep a mature Sawo microbial pathogens are not attacked, you should use a fungicide Benlate. Treatment naturally, without using chemicals, it was hard to get the best results. Therefore, to maintain security, Sawo fruit should be washed before eaten. @ Prof Made Astawan Food Technology and Nutrition Experts IPB

Snake Fruit

Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree (family Arecaceae) native to Indonesia. It is a very short-stemmed palm, with leaves up to 6 metres (20 ft) long; each leaf has a 2-metre long petiole with spines up to 15 centimetres (5.9 in) long, and numerous leaflets.

The fruit grow in clusters at the base of the palm, and are also known as snake fruit due to the reddish-brown scaly skin. They are about the size and shape of a ripe fig, with a distinct tip. The pulp is edible. The fruit can be peeled by pinching the tip, which should cause the skin to slough off so it can be pulled away. The fruit inside consists of three lobes, each containing a large inedible seed. The lobes resemble, and have the consistency of, large peeled garlic cloves. The taste is usually sweet and acidic, but its apple-like texture can vary from very dry and crumbly (snake fruit pondoh from Yogyakarta) to moist and crunchy (snake fruit Bali).

Snake fruit has is indigenous to and has been cultivated throughout Indonesia, and there are at least 30 cultivars, most of which have an astringent taste and are sweet. Two popular cultivars are snake fruit pondoh from Yogyakarta province (found in 1980s) and snake fruit Bali from Bali island.

Snake fruit pondoh is an important fruit in Yogyakarta province. In the five years to 1999, the annual production in Yogyakarta doubled to 28,666 tons. Its popularity (compared with other cultivars) among local Indonesian consumers is mainly due to the intensity of its aroma, which can be overripe and sweaty even before full maturation.

Snake fruit pondoh has three more superior variations, namely pondoh super, pondoh hitam (black pondoh), and pondoh gading (ivory-English term for gading / yellowish-skinned pondoh).

Snake fruit Bali is commonly sold all over the island of Bali, and is a popular fruit with both locals and tourists. The fruit is roughly the size of a large fig, and has a crunchy and moist consistency. The fruit has a starchy 'mouth feel', and a flavour reminiscent of dilute pineapple and lemon juice.

The most expensive cultivar of the Bali snake fruit is the gula pasir (literally "sand sugar", referring to its fine-grainedness), which is smaller than the normal snake fruit and is the sweetest of all snake fruit. The price in Bali is Rp 15,000-30,000 (US$1.50-3.00) per kilogram depending on time of year, against about Rp 12,000 for regular snake fruit.


Jamaican naseberry (Manilkara zapotilla, Sapotaceae) is native to Central and South America. The tropical Jamaican naseberry fruit Jamaican naseberry tree may grow as all as 30 m in Jamaica and the Jamaican naseberry is tolerant of dry conditions. One of the most interesting and desirable of all tropical Jamaican naseberry fruit Jamaican naseberry trees, the Jamaican naseberry, a member of the family Sapotaceae, is now known botanically as Manilkara zapota.

The first report of the total soluble sugars for some varieties of Jamaican naseberry found between 20-25% [1] while the reducing and sucrose sugar content was 6.1-9.6% and 1.8-3.4% respectively. A more recent study [2] on the glycemic index (GI) of Jamaican naseberry fruits found that Jamaican naseberry had a rating of 57 which was attributed to the high dietary fiber content 7.9%, fructose level of 5.3g and the presence of starch 0.8g per 100g portion. The fractionation [3] of a methanol extract from Jamaican naseberry fruit resulted in the isolation of two new antioxidants.

The Jamaican naseberry is a fairly slow-growing, long-lived Jamaican naseberry tree, upright and elegant, distinctly pyramidal when young; to 60 ft (18 m) high in the open but reaching 100 ft (30 m) when crowded in a forest. The Jamaican naseberry is strong and wind-resistant, rich in white, gummy latex. Its Jamaican naseberry leaves are highly ornamental, evergreen, glossy, alternate, spirally clustered at the tips of the forked twigs; elliptic, pointed at both ends, firm, 3 to 4 1/2 in (7.5-11.25 cm) long and 1 to 1 1/2 in (2.5-4 cm) wide. Jamaican naseberry flowers are small and bell-like, with 3 brown-hairy outer sepals and 3 inner sepals enclosing the pale-green corolla and 6 stamens. They are borne on slender stalks at the Jamaican naseberry leaf bases. The Jamaican naseberry fruit may be nearly round, oblate, oval, ellipsoidal, or conical; varies from 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) in width. When immature the Jamaican naseberry is hard, gummy and very astringent. Though smooth-skinned the Jamaican naseberry is coated with sandy brown scurf until fully ripe. The flesh ranges in color from yellowish to light- or dark-brown or sometimes reddish-brown; may be coarse and somewhat grainy or smooth; becomes soft and very juicy, with a sweet flavor resembling that of a pear. Some Jamaican naseberry fruits are Jamaican naseberry seedless, but normally there may be from 3 to 12 Jamaican naseberry seeds which are easily removed as they are loosely held in a whorl of slots in the center of the Jamaican naseberry fruit. They are brown or black, with one white margin; hard, glossy; long-oval, flat, with usually a distinct curved hook on one margin; and about 1/4 in (2 cm) long.

The Jamaican naseberry is believed native to Yucatan and possibly other nearby parts of southern Mexico, as well as northern Belize and Northeastern Guatemala. In this region there were once 100,000,000 Jamaican naseberry trees. The species is found in forests throughout Central America where the Jamaican naseberry has apparently been cultivated since ancient times. The Jamaican naseberry was introduced long ago throughout tropical America and the West Indies, the Bahamas, Bermuda, the Florida Keys and the southern part of the Florida mainland. Early in colonial times, the Jamaican naseberry was carried to the Philippines and later was adopted everywhere in the Old World tropics. The Jamaican naseberry reached Ceylon in 1802.

Cultivation is most extensive in coastal India (Maharastra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Madras and Bengal States), where Jamaican naseberry plantations are estimated to cover 4,942 acres (2,000 ha), while Mexico has 3,733.5 acres (1,511 ha) devoted to the production of Jamaican naseberry fruit (mainly in the states of Campeche and Veracruz) and 8,192 acres (4,000 ha) primarily for extraction of chicle (see under "Other Uses") as well as many dooryard and wild Jamaican naseberry trees. Commercial Jamaican naseberry plantings prosper in Sri Lanka, the Philippines, the interior valleys of Palestine, as well as in various countries of South and Central America, including Venezuela and Guatemala.

In most areas, types are distinguished merely by shape, as 'Round' and 'Oval' in Saharanpur, India. Several named cultivars are grown for commercial or home use in western and southern India: 'Kalipatti', small, early, high quality; 'Calcutta Special', large, late; 'Pilipatti', small, midseason to late; 'Bhuripatti', small, midseason; Jumakhia', small, in clusters, late; 'Mohan Gooti', small, midseason, not very sweet; 'Kittubarti', very small, ridged, very sweet; 'Kittubarti Big', large, but of inferior quality; 'Cricket Ball', very large, with crisp, granular, very sweet flesh but not distinctive in flavor; 'Dwarapudi', similar, but not quite as big, sweet and very popular; 'Bangalore', large, ridged, and 'Vavivalasa' are oval and popular in the Circars but are only medium-sweet and bear poorly.

Other prominent cultivars in India are 'Jonnavalosa-I', of medium size, pale-fleshed, sweet; 'Jonnavalosa-Il', of medium size, ridged, with yellowish-pink flesh, sweet but not agreeable in flavor; 'Jonnavalosa Round', large, ridged, with cream-colored flesh, very sweet; 'Gauranga', small, lop-sided, ridged, very sweet, bears heavily; 'Ayyangar', large, very thick-skinned, sweet, rose-scented; 'Thagarampudi', of medium size, thin-skinned, very sweet; 'Oaka', small, rounded to oval, of good flavor and popular. Among the lesser-known are 'Badam', 'Bhuri', 'Calcutta Round', 'CO. 1' ('Cricket Ball' X 'Long Oval'), 'Dhola diwani', 'Fingar', 'Gavarayya', 'Guthi', 'Kali', and 'Vanjet'. A dwarf type called 'Pot' bears early and can be maintained as a pot specimen for 10 years.

The Jamaican naseberry trees in Panama do not exceed 26 ft (8 m) in height and bear small, oblate Jamaican naseberry fruits in dense clusters. In Indonesia, naseberries are classed in two main groups: 1) Sawo maneela, normal-size Jamaican naseberry trees having narrow, pointed Jamaican naseberry leaves; and 2) Sawo apel, low, shrub like Jamaican naseberry trees, with oblong Jamaican naseberry leaves broadest above the middle. Belonging to group #1 are the common cultivars 'Sawo betawi' (Jamaican naseberry fruit large, in clusters of 2-4, popular, perishable, ripening in 3 days from picking); 'Sawo koolon' (Jamaican naseberry fruit large, solitary, thick skinned, with firm flesh, shipping well); 'Sawo madja' (large, with persistent scurf, pulp of fine texture, sweet with an acid tang). Belonging to group #2 are 'Sawo apel bener' (Jamaican naseberry fruits small in clusters of 3-6, thick-skinned); 'Sawo apel klapa' (Jamaican naseberry fruits medium-size, with persistent scurf). Some others are little grown because the Jamaican naseberry fruits are very small, too sandy, too gummy, or too dry.

Jamaican naseberry seedling selections of high quality have been named and vegetative reproduced. The first of these was 'Russell' from Islamorada in the Florida Keys, named and propagated by R.H. Fitzpatrick. The Jamaican naseberry is nearly round, up to 4 in (10 cm) in diameter and length, brown-scurfy with gray patches, and luscious, reddish flesh. The Jamaican naseberry is not a dependable bearer. The second, 'Prolific', a Jamaican naseberry seedling. The skin is lighter than that of the 'Russell' and tends to lose much of the scurf as the Jamaican naseberry ripens. The Jamaican naseberry tree bears early, consistently and heavily. Of later selection, 'Modello' is a good quality Jamaican naseberry fruit but not a heavy producer; 'Jamaican naseberry seedless' yields poorly; 'Brown Sugar' is a good, regular, high yielder; handles and keeps well.

Some introduced cultivars being tested in Florida include: 'Boetzberg', 'Larsen', 'Morning Star', 'Jamaica 8', and 'Jamaica 10'. 'Tikal', a recent Jamaican naseberry seedling selection, seems very promising. The Jamaican naseberry is light-brown, elliptic to conical, much smaller than 'Prolific', but of excellent flavor and comes into season very early. Several cultivars not recommended because of low yield in southern Florida are 'Addley', 'Adelaide', 'Big Pine Key', 'Black', 'Jamaica No. 4', 'Jamaica No. 5', 'Martin' and 'Saunders'.

In 1951, in Jamaica, I visited an English gentleman who had a very special Jamaican naseberry tree which bore great quantities of tiny Jamaican naseberrys, no more than 1½ in (4 cm) in diameter. They were all Jamaican naseberry seedless and he served them chilled, whole. In the Philippines, selected cultivars, 'Ponderosa', 'Java', 'Sao Manila', 'Native', 'Formosa', 'Rangel', and the 'Prolific' from Florida are maintained by the Bureau of Jamaican naseberry plant Industry for propagation and distribution to farmers. 'Sao Manila' Jamaican naseberry fruits mature in 190 days and ripen 3 to 5 days after picking. Hybridization studies have been conducted in India.

The Jamaican naseberry grows from sea level to 1,500 ft (457 m) in the Philippines, up to 4,000 ft (1,220 m) in India, to 3,937 ft (1,200 in) in Venezuela, and is common around Quito, Ecuador, at 9,186 ft (2,800 m). The Jamaican naseberry is not strictly tropical, for mature Jamaican naseberry trees can withstand temperatures of 26º to 28º F (-3.33º to -2.2º C) for several hours. Young Jamaican naseberry trees are tendered and apt to be killed by 30º F (-1.11º C) unless the stem is banked with sand or wrapped with straw and burlap during the cold spell. A number of Jamaican naseberry trees have lived for a few years in California without Jamaican naseberry fruiting and then have succumbed to cold. Cool nights are considered a constant limiting factor. However, I have learned of one Jamaican naseberry tree in a protected location in the Sacramento Valley that has survived for many years, reaching a large size and Jamaican naseberry fruiting regularly. The Jamaican naseberry seems equally at home in humid and relatively dry atmospheres.

The Jamaican naseberry grows naturally in the calcareous marl and disintegrated limestone of its homeland, therefore the Jamaican naseberry should not be surprising that the Jamaican naseberry is so well adapted to southern Florida and the Florida Keys. Nevertheless, the Jamaican naseberry flourishes also in deep, loose, organic soil, or on light clay, diabase, sand or lateritic gravel. Good drainage is essential, the Jamaican naseberry tree bearing poorly in low, wet locations. The Jamaican naseberry is highly drought-resistant, can stand salt spray, and approaches the date palm in its tolerance of soil salinity, rated as ECe 14.20.

Jamaican naseberry seeds remain viable for several years if kept dry. The best Jamaican naseberry seeds are large ones from large Jamaican naseberry fruits. They germinate readily but growth is slow and the Jamaican naseberry trees take 5 to 8 years to bear. Since there is great variation in the form, quality and yield of Jamaican naseberry fruits from Jamaican naseberry seedling Jamaican naseberry trees, vegetative propagation has long been considered desirable but has been hampered by the gummy latex. In India, several methods are practiced: grafting, inarching, ground-layering and air-layering. Grafts have been successful on several Jamaican naseberry rootstocks: Jamaican naseberry, Bassia latifolia, B. longifolia, Sideroxylon dulcificum and Mimusops hexandra. The last has been particularly successful, the grafts growing vigorously and Jamaican naseberry fruiting heavily.

In Florida, shield-budding, cleft-grafting and side-grafting were moderately successful but too slow for large-scale production. An improved method of side-grafting was developed using year-old Jamaican naseberry seedlings with stems 1/4 in (6 mm) thick. The scion (young terminal shoot) was prepared 6 weeks to several months in advance by girdling and defoliating. Just before grafting the Jamaican naseberry rootstock was scored just above the grafting site and the latex "bled" for several minutes. After the stock was notched and the scion set in, the Jamaican naseberry was bound with rubber and given a protective coating of wax or asphalt. The scion started growing in 30 days and the Jamaican naseberry rootstock was then beheaded. Some years later, further experiments showed that better results were obtained by omitting the pre-conditioning of the scion and the bleeding of the latex. The operator must work fast and clean his knife frequently. The scions are veneer-grafted and then completely covered with plastic, allowing free gas exchange while preventing dehydration. Success is deemed most dependent on season: the 2 or 3 months of late summer and early fall.

In the Philippines, terminal shoots are completely defoliated 2 to 3 weeks before grafting onto Jamaican naseberry rootstock which has been kept in partial shade for 2 months. However, inarching is there considered superior to grafting, giving a greater percentage of success. Homeowners often find air-layering easier and more successful than grafting, and air-layered Jamaican naseberry trees often begin bearing within 2 years after Jamaican naseberry planting.

In India, 50% success has been realized in top-working 20-year-old Jamaican naseberry trees--cutting back to 3 1/2 ft (1 m) from the ground and inserting scions of superior cultivars.

Jamaican naseberry seedlings for grafting are best grown in full sun, kept moist and fertilized with 8-4-8 N P K every 45 days. Jamaican naseberry trees set out in commercial groves should be spaced 30 to 45 ft (9-13.5 m) apart each way. In India, the Jamaican naseberry plants are placed in deep, pre-fertilized pits twice a year, sometimes with the addition of castor bean meal or residue of neem Jamaican naseberry seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), wood ash and/or ammonium sulfate. In an experiment at Marathwada Agricultural University, Parbhani, India, with 8-year-old Jamaican naseberry trees Jamaican naseberry planted at 12 m, application of 28 oz (800 g) N/Jamaican naseberry tree increased trunk size and number and weight of Jamaican naseberry fruits. Combined application of this amount of N plus 6 1/4 oz (176 g) P and 5¾ oz Jamaican naseberry tree gave the highest Jamaican naseberry fruit yield. Fertilizer experiments over a period of 25 years at Gujarat Agricultural University revealed that N alone increases yield by 70%, a combination of N and P elevates yield by 90%, and combined N and K, 128%, over that of control (unfertilized) Jamaican naseberry trees. Of course, optimum nutrient formulas depend on the character of the soil. In South Florida's limestone a mixed fertilizer of N, P, K, and Mg in a 4-7-5-3 ratio is recommended in spring, summer and fall.

Most mature Jamaican naseberry trees receive no watering, but irrigation in dry seasons will increase productivity. In some parts of India, brackish or saline water is sometimes used to reduce vegetative growth and promote Jamaican naseberry fruiting. The Jamaican naseberry fruits mature 4 to 6 months after Jamaican naseberry flowering. In the tropics, some cultivars bear almost continuously. In India, the main season is from December to March. The Jamaican naseberry trees bear from May to September in Florida, with the peak of the Jamaican naseberry crop in June and July. In Mexico, there are two peak seasons: February-April and October-December.

Most people find the Jamaican naseberry difficult to tell when a Jamaican naseberry is ready to pick. With types that shed much of the "sand" on maturity, the Jamaican naseberry is relatively easy to observe the slight yellow or peach color of the ripe skin, but with other types the Jamaican naseberry is necessary to rub the scurf to see if the Jamaican naseberry loosens readily and then scratch the Jamaican naseberry fruit to make sure the skin is not green beneath the scurf. If the skin is brown and the Jamaican naseberry fruit separates from the stem easily without leaking of the latex, the Jamaican naseberry is fully mature though still hard and must be kept at room temperature for a few days to soften. The Jamaican naseberry is best to wash off the sandy scurf before putting the Jamaican naseberry fruit aside to ripen. The Jamaican naseberry should be eaten when firm-soft, not mushy.

In the Bahamas, children bury their "dillies" in potholes in the limestone to ripen, or the Jamaican naseberry fruits may be wrapped in sweaters or other thick material and put in drawers to hasten softening. Jamaican naseberry fruits picked immature will shrivel as they soften and will be of inferior quality, sometimes with small pockets of gummy latex.

In commercial groves, the Jamaican naseberry is judged that when a few Jamaican naseberry fruits have softened and fallen from the Jamaican naseberry tree, all the full-grown Jamaican naseberry fruits may be harvested for marketing. If in any doubt, the grower should cut open a few Jamaican naseberry fruits to make sure the Jamaican naseberry seeds are black (or very dark-brown). Pickers should use clippers or picking poles with bag and sharp notch at the peak of the metal frame to cut the Jamaican naseberry fruit stem.

In India, the Jamaican naseberry fruits are spread out in the shade to allow any latex at the stem end to dry before packing. The Jamaican naseberry fruits ship well with minimal packing.

The 'Prolific' Jamaican naseberry yields 6 to 9 bushels per Jamaican naseberry tree annually; or, 200 to 450 lbs (90 to 180 kg). 'Brown Sugar' yields 5 to 8 bushels. In India, the Jamaican naseberry is said that a productive Jamaican naseberry tree will bear 1,000 Jamaican naseberry fruits in its 10th year and the yield increases steadily. At 30-35 years of age, the Jamaican naseberry tree should produce 2,500 to 3,000 Jamaican naseberry fruits annually. A great deal depends on the cultivar. A 10-year-old 'Oval' Jamaican naseberry tree gave 1,158 Jamaican naseberry fruits weighing 184 lbs (128.8 kg), while a 10-year-old 'Cricket Ball' bore 353 Jamaican naseberry fruits weighing 112 lbs (50 kg). Hand-pollination has been found to increase Jamaican naseberry fruit set.

Mature, hard Jamaican naseberrys will ripen in 9 to 10 days and rot in 2 weeks at normal summer temperature and relative humidity. More than 50 years ago, Jamaican naseberrys were shipped from Java to Holland, held at 40º-50º F (4.44-10º C) for 3 days, and they ripened satisfactorily after arrival. They were smoked over burning straw for a few hours before packing. Storage trials in Malaya demonstrated that mature, hard Jamaican naseberrys stored at 68º F (20º C) win ripen in 10 days and remain in good condition for another 5 days. In Venezuela, mature Jamaican naseberry fruits held at 68º F (20º C) and 90% relative humidity were in excellent condition at the end of 23 days. Lower temperatures, in efforts to prolong storage life, seriously retard ripening and lower Jamaican naseberry fruit quality. Low relative humidity causes shriveling and wrinkling. Humid conditions promote sogginess. If long storage is necessary, the Jamaican naseberry fruits may be kept at 59º-68º F (15º-20º C) in a controlled atmosphere of 85-90% relative humidity, 5-10% (v/v) CO2, with total removal Of C2H4 to delay ripening.

Firm-ripe Jamaican naseberrys may be kept for several days in good condition in the home refrigerator. At 35º F (1.67º C), they can be kept for 6 weeks. Fully ripe Jamaican naseberry fruits frozen at 32º F (0º C) keep perfectly for 33 days.

In general, the Jamaican naseberry tree remains supremely healthy with little or no care. In India, the Jamaican naseberry is sometimes attacked by a bark-borer. Mealy bugs may infest tender shoots and deface the Jamaican naseberry fruits. A galechid caterpillar has caused Jamaican naseberry flower buds and Jamaican naseberry flowers to dry up and fall. In Indonesia, caterpillars may completely defoliate the Jamaican naseberry tree. A caterpillar feeds on the Jamaican naseberry leaves, Jamaican naseberry flower buds and young Jamaican naseberry fruits in parts of India. The ripening and overripe Jamaican naseberry fruits are favorite hosts of the Mediterranean, Caribbean, Mexican and other Jamaican naseberry fruit flies.

Various scales, including and pustule scale may lead to black sooty mold caused by the fungus on stems, foliage and Jamaican naseberry fruits. In some years, during winter and spring in Florida, rust may affect the foliage of some cultivars. A Jamaican naseberry leaf spot has caused defoliation in a few locations. The moth of a Jamaican naseberry leaf miner is active on young Jamaican naseberry leaves. Other minor enemies have been occasionally observed. In India, the Jamaican naseberry may be necessary to spread nets over the Jamaican naseberry tree to protect the Jamaican naseberry fruits from Jamaican naseberry fruit bats.

Generally, the ripe Jamaican naseberry, un-chilled or preferably chilled, is merely cut in half and the flesh is eaten with a spoon. The Jamaican naseberry is an ideal dessert Jamaican naseberry fruit as the skin, which is not eaten, remains firm enough to serve as a "shell". Care must be taken not to swallow a Jamaican naseberry seed, as the protruding hook might cause lodging in the throat. The flesh, of course, may be scooped out and added to Jamaican naseberry fruit cups or salads. A dessert sauce is made by peeling and Jamaican naseberry seeding ripe Jamaican naseberrys, pressing the flesh through a colander, adding orange juice, and topping with whipped cream. Jamaican naseberry flesh may also be blended into an egg custard mix before baking. The Jamaican naseberry was long proclaimed that the Jamaican naseberry fruit could not be cooked or preserved in any way, but the Jamaican naseberry is sometimes fried.

Indonesia and, in Malaya, is stewed with lime juice or ginger. I found that Bahamians often crush the ripe Jamaican naseberry fruits, strain, boil and preserve the juice as syrup. They also add mashed Jamaican naseberry pulp to pancake batter and to ordinary bread mix before baking. My own experiments showed that a fine jam could be made by peeling and stewing cut-up ripe Jamaican naseberry fruits in water and skimming off a green scum that rises to the surface and appears to be dissolved latex, then adding sugar to improve texture and sour orange juice and a strip of peel to offset the increased sweetness. Skimming until all latex scum is gone is the only way to avoid gumminess. Cooking with sugar changes the brown color of the flesh to a pleasing red.

One lady in Florida developed a recipe for Jamaican naseberry pie. She peeled the ripe Jamaican naseberry fruits, cut them into pieces as apples are cut, and filled the raw lower crust, sprinkled 1/2 cup of raisins over the Jamaican naseberry fruit, poured over evenly 1/2 cup of 50-50 lime and lemon juice to prevent the Jamaican naseberry pieces from becoming rubbery, and then sprinkled evenly 1/2 cup of granulated sugar. After covering with the top crust and making a center hole to release steam, she baked for 40 minutes at 350º F (176.67º C). In India, the Jamaican naseberry has been shown that ripe Jamaican naseberry fruits can be peeled and sliced, packed in metal cans, heated for 10 minutes at 158º F (70º C), then treated for 6 minutes at a vacuum of 28 in Hg, vacuum double-seamed, and irradiated with a total dose of 4 x 105 rads at room temperature. This process provides an acceptable canned product. Ripe Jamaican naseberrys have been successfully dried by pretreatment with a 60% sugar solution and osmotic dehydration for 5 hours, and the product has retained acceptable quality for 2 months.

Jamaican naseberry wine and told me that the Jamaican naseberry was very good. Young Jamaican naseberry leafy shoots are eaten raw or steamed with rice in Indonesia, after washing to eliminate the sticky sap. Immature Jamaican naseberrys are rich in tannin (proanthocyanadins) and very astringent. Ripening eliminates the tannin except for a low level remaining in the skin. Analyses of 9 selections of Jamaican naseberrys from southern Mexico showed great variation in total soluble solids, sugars and ascorbic acid content. Unfortunately, the Jamaican naseberry fruits were not peeled and therefore the results show abnormal amounts of tannin contributed by the skin. Moisture ranged from 69.0 to 75.7%; ascorbic acid from 8.9 to 41.4 mg/100 g; total acid, 0.09 to 0.15%; pH, 5.0 to 5.3; total soluble solids, 17.4º to 23.7º Brix; as for carbohydrates, glucose ranged from 5.84 to 9.23%, fructose, 4.47 to 7.13%, sucrose, 1.48 to 8.75%, total sugars, 11.14 to 20.43%, starch, 2.98 to 6.40%. Tannin content, because of the skins, varied from 3.16 to 6.45%.

The Jamaican naseberry seed kernel (50% of the whole Jamaican naseberry seed) contains 1% saponin and 0.08% of a bitter principle, sapotinin. Ingestion of more than 6 Jamaican naseberry seeds causes abdominal pain and vomiting. A major by-product of the Jamaican naseberry tree is the gummy latex called "chicle", containing 15% rubber and 38% resin. For many years the Jamaican naseberry has been employed as the chief ingredient in chewing gum but the Jamaican naseberry is now in some degree diluted or replaced by latex from other species and by synthetic gums. Chicle is tasteless and harmless and is obtained by repeated tapping of wild and cultivated Jamaican naseberry trees in Yucatan, Belize and Guatemala. The Jamaican naseberry is coagulated by stirring over low fires, then poured into molds to form blocks for export. Processing consists of drying, melting, elimination of foreign matter, combining with other gums and resins, sweeteners and flavoring, then rolling into sheets and cutting into desired units.

The dried latex was chewed by the Mayas and was introduced into the United States by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana about 1866 while he was on Staten Island awaiting clearance to enter this country. He had a supply in his pocket for chewing and gave a piece to the son of Thomas Adams. The latter at first considered the possibility of using the Jamaican naseberry to make dentures, and then decided the Jamaican naseberry was useful only as a masticator. He found he could easily incorporate flavoring and thus soon launched the chicle-based chewing-gum industry. In 1930, at the peak of production, nearly 14,000,000 lbs (6,363,636 kg) of chicle were imported. Efforts have been made to extract chicle from the Jamaican naseberry leaves and unripe Jamaican naseberry fruit but the yield is insufficient. The Jamaican naseberry has been estimated that 3,200 Jamaican naseberry leaves would be needed to produce one pound (0.4535 kg) of gum.

Among miscellaneous uses: the latex is employed as birdlime, as an adhesive in mending small articles in India; the Jamaican naseberry has been utilized in dental surgery, and as a substitute for gutta percha. The Aztecs used the Jamaican naseberry for modeling figurines. Jamaican naseberry wood is strong and durable and timbers which formed lintels and supporting beams in Mayan temples have been found intact in the ruins. The Jamaican naseberry has also been used for railway crossties, flooring, native carts, tool handles, shuttles and rulers. The red heartwood is valued for archer's bows, furniture, banisters, and cabinetwork but the sawdust irritates the nostrils. Felling of the Jamaican naseberry tree is prohibited in Yucatan because of its value as a source of chicle. The tannin-rich bark is used by Philippine fishermen to tint their sails and fishing lines. Because of the tannin content, young Jamaican naseberry fruits are boiled and the decoction taken to stop diarrhea. An infusion of the young Jamaican naseberry fruits and the Jamaican naseberry flowers is drunk to relieve pulmonary complaints. A decoction of old, yellowed Jamaican naseberry leaves is drunk as a remedy for coughs, colds and diarrhea. A "tea" of the bark is regarded as a febrifuge and is said to halt diarrhea and dysentery. The crushed Jamaican naseberry seeds have a diuretic action and are claimed to expel bladder and kidney stones. A fluid extract of the crushed Jamaican naseberry seeds is employed in Yucatan as a sedative and soporific. A combined decoction of Jamaican naseberry and chayote Jamaican naseberry leaves is sweetened and taken daily to lower blood pressure. A paste of the Jamaican naseberry seeds is applied on stings and bites from venomous animals. The latex is used in the tropics as a crude filling for tooth cavities. Eaten fresh, usually as a dessert Jamaican naseberry fruit. The bark contains a gummy latex substance called chicle which used to be a primary ingredient in chewing gum slow growing and very large Jamaican naseberry tree that can reach over 100ft in the tropics. The Jamaican naseberry is reasonably hardy Jamaican naseberry tree when full grown and can stand temperatures into the high 20's. The Jamaican naseberry is at home in both dry and wet climates and is drought tolerant. Jamaican naseberry fruiting occurs 4-6 months after Jamaican naseberry flowering, with Jamaican naseberry fruit sometimes ripening in bunches multiple times of the year. The Jamaican naseberry is propagated by Jamaican naseberry seed or grafting. Jamaican naseberry seeds can remain viable for several years. Native to the Yucatan, Guatemala, and Belize. The Jamaican naseberry is now grown in much of the tropics.