June 16, 2010

Pigeon Plum

Pigeon plum, sometimes called doveplum and pigeon seagrape, is one of the larger seacoast trees found in central and southern Florida, the Keys, the West Indies, and the Bahamas. Pigeon plum is an excellent ornamental tree for yards and streets in south and central Florida coastal areas because of its resistance to high winds, salty conditions, and drought. It is tolerant of salt spray and often grows well in sandy, rocky, or broken coral soils near tidewater areas. Pigeon plum is recommended as a good hurricane resistant species for barrier plantings.

The fruit is eaten by numerous wildlife species, especially doves and pigeons, hence its common names. The white-crowned pigeon is a frequent visitor. Other wildlife that is known to eat the fleshy fruits and seeds include raccoons, small rodents, mockingbirds, catbirds, robins, and woodpeckers.


The heavy, dark, reddish-brown wood has some limited use in furniture manufacture and cabinetry. The wood is hard and strong but may be brittle, so its commercial value is limited.

Seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera) is a related tree that is also common in coastal areas in Florida. Seagrape is limited to beaches and dunes whereas pigeon plum grows more in coastal hammocks and sandy soils near tidewater. Both trees are frequently used in yards and streets in southern and central Florida.

Identifying Characteristics


  • Size/Form: Pigeon plum is a medium sized, evergreen tree that can reach heights of 60' to 80' but more commonly averages from 30' to 40'. It is smaller and more shrub-like in the northern parts of its range. It has dense, spreading branches and a round-topped crown.
  • Leaves: The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, 3"-4" long, and oval to lanceolate in shape. The upper surface is bright green and the underside is paler. The leaf base is wedge-shaped or rounded and the leaf tip is acute or rounded. The leaf margins are slightly wavy and rolled under.
  • Fruit: The fruit is a thin walled, light brown nutlet encased in a tubular, dark red, berry-like pulp about ¼" to ½" long.
  • Bark: The bark is dark reddish-brown, smooth, and thin but may become scaly on the largest trees.
  • Habitat: pigeon plum grows in sandy soils and hammocks near tidewater areas.(sfrc.ufl.edu)

Persian Limes

It’s called a Persian Lime, also a Tahiti lime or Bearss lime. But you probably recognize it as the plain-old-lime you see in the store!

It is a citrus fruit grown commercially in the U.S. and sold as a “lime”.

The fruit is about 2 inches in diameter, often with slightly nippled ends. There’s no mistaking that it is green, either.

It is larger, thicker-skinned, and less aromatic than the Key Lime, which has a wider agricultural distribution worldwide.

The advantages of the persian lime in commercial agriculture compared to the Key Lime are the larger size, absence of seeds, hardiness, absence of thorns on the bushes, and longer fruit shelf life.


They are less acidic than key limes and don’t have the bitterness that lends to the key lime’s unique flavor.

Persian limes are commercialized primarily in Florida in the U.S. It rose to prominence after Key lime groves were wiped out there by a hurricane in 1926, though Persian lime groves themselves were devastated by Hurricane Andrew in 1992.

U.S. Persian lime imports from Mexico are handled mostly through McAllen, Texas.(citrus.com)

Souari Nut

The Souari nut, caryocar brasiliense, is a nut bearing, evergreen, medium sized tree up to 20 meters tall. It is a member of the Caryocaraceae family and native to hot, scrub-land regions of Northern and Western Brazil. The Leaves are hairy that can cause itching and formed in leaflets of three (trifoliate). The Flowers are hermaphrodite produced in small clusters and they have a non pleasant smell. They are pollinated by bats.

This evergreen tree produces coconut-sized grey-green colored fruits (drupes) that can weight up to 3kg and contain one to four nuts like stones. The yellow pulp is eaten fresh out of hand, used as flavoring for various dishes (suari nut rice), sweets and meat condiment or made into a liqueur. It is a rich source of the vitamins A, C and to a lower extent B1 and B3 and excellent tonic.

The kidney-shaped nuts are red, hard-shelled with rich flavor that can be eaten raw or roasted and taste good. They contain fatty oil that is used as source of cooking oil (suari fat). The nuts resemble Brazil nuts but are larger and richer in taste.

The souari nut tree is propagated from seeds. It needs high humidity, full sun and does well on clay and poor soils. The tree has been used for timber with wood qualities suitable for shipbuilding. (fruitandnuttrees.com)

Pequi

pequi, fruits and health, dailyfruits.blogspot.comOther Names: Souari Nut, Caryocar brasiliense. Description: Pequi or Souari Nut (Caryocar brasiliense) is a Brazilian fruit. It is yellow coloured, and has a strong taste and smell. It is a very popular meal in Goiás and Minas Gerais, and may be eaten by itself or with other food. The Pequi with rice and chicken is specially popular. An oil extracted from the seeds of the pequi is also used as an edible oil. The pequi occupies an important role in the culture of indigenous people in Brazil's Cerrado region.

The pequi is the main symbol of this de-structuring of the economy. The pequi is habitually consumed by the population in the Cerrado zone and is deeply rooted in the regional culture and cooking. For the Mineiros, the Cerrado inhabitants of Minas Gerais, the pequi does not belong to anyone, because it belongs to everyone.

Therefore, they maintain their ancestral right to take it wherever it is, in public or private land, fenced in land or unfenced land, etc., wherever it is, the pequi was always "accessible" to the regional society. Since the sixties, due to logging and installation on a wide scale of eucalyptus plantations, the pequi and all that it represents are under a serious threat.

Impotence Home Remedy Using Pequi

Get about 15-20 seeds of Pequi and put them on a bottle of an alcoholic beverage, like vodka or cachaça (brazilian beverage). Let it rest for at least 10 days.
After that, drink about 2 spoons of the liquid per day.

Cold Home Remedy Using Pequi

Boil 15-20 seeds of pequi, and throw the water out. Put the seeds on a jar and complete with vegetal oil, previously hot. Use the oil 2 times a day on the meals or mixture a spoon of the oil with a spoon of honey and take it 2 times a day.

Asthma Home Remedy Using Pequi

Extract the oil of the Pequi Nut. Put 3-5 drops of it on the food, 2 times a day. (mamaherb.com)

Peanut Butter Fruit

Bunchosia argentea

Small red-orange fruit with sticky, dense pulp and flavor resembling a dried fig.

Description: Small tree or shrub.

Hardiness: Not freeze hardy.

Growing Environment: Needs a tropical climate for survival.

Propagation: By seeds.

Uses: Usually peanut butter eaten fresh or used as a flavoring in drinks.

Native Range: Native to Central and South America.

Peach

Sexy Fruit Prevention of Early Aging

Almost everyone likes peaches (Prunus presica). In addition to a sweet, refreshing acids, sexy fruit is also very rich in vitamins, fiber and other essential minerals. Peach also is anti-aging, boost immunity and is detoxification or help remove toxins from the body.

Peach Plants at a Glance

Peach including family stone fruit or fruit with seed in hardware. According to the literature, peaches come from the plains of China, this fruit is said to have grown there since 3000 years ago. Now peaches can be cultivated in almost all parts of the earth, especially in the highlands of cool air.

At first glance the characteristics of tree crops like apples. Bushy tree will bear fruit in the range from June to September. Muncil its interest in the young stem, a few months later would be fruit hanging from each stem base. Young peach colored green, along with the mature fruit, the skin will turn reddish yellow. Peach has many varieties. Of the dozens of existing species, varieties of white peaches and yellow peaches most often found.

Peach Treat

At first glance the shape and flavor similar to plum peach or apricot. The difference is the outer skin has a hairy peach, more tender meat, contains a lot of water and smells more fragrant.

Most people consume off sider peaches as the fruit table. In fact, sexy fruit with sweet flavor, this fresh acid can be processed into a variety of dishes. Fresh peach juice can be made, the contents of the pie, fruit compote, or a mixture of pudding. Also sold in the market of processed peaches in syrup or candied dried. Peaches in syrup solution, suitable as a mixture of fruit cocktail, pudding or pie content. For dried peaches, can be used as the contents of bread, cake or cookie mix.

Sometimes necessary to process fresh peaches peeled. To facilitate peeling, soak the fruit in hot water for 15 minutes, remove and put in cold water. Now you can easily peel the fruit leather. If will be processed, do not cook it too long because the texture of the fruit is very tender and cooked quickly.

Prevent Early Aging

In the peach fruit contained a variety of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients beneficial to health. According to the USDA nutrient database, every 100 grams of ripe peaches cal contained 43 calories, 2.0 g fiber, 66 mg vitamin C, 535 IU of vitamin A, 0.700 mg of vitamin E and various other essential minerals.

Scientific research has other facts, according to health experts, eating peaches makes the body regularly fulfilled the needs of fiber, avoiding colon cancer, expedite the process of digestion and constipation problems. Peach fruit is also rich in vitamins C and E which can remove free radicals from the body, antioxidants to prevent premature aging and prevent cancer. Role of Beta carotene contained another, these substances can prevent a mild flu interference and make the body more resistant to interference of various diseases because of increased endurance.

Annonaceae

Molecular Systematics of Annonaceae

Dr. L.W. Chatrou - NHN Utrecht

The National Herbarium of the Netherlands houses a large body of specialists working on the pan-tropical eumagnoliid family Annonaceae. Fibrous and aromatic bark, wood with fine tangential bands of parenchyma, alternate, distichous leaves, a trimerous perianth, and ruminate endosperm are among the characters that give Annonaceae their unmistakable appearance. In the rich forests of the upper Amazon basin Annonaceae always are among the most important families in terms of number of individuals and species richness. Some species, such as Annona cherimola (cherimoya), A. muricata (guanabana, soursop), A. squamosa (sugar apple, sweet apple), and Rollinia mucosa (biriba) are cultivated throughout the tropics and even subtropics because of their edible fruit. The strong bark is often used for carrying burdens throughout the Amazon region. Annonaceous wood is often valued for firewood and is used for poles, canoes, and bridges. Recently some Annonaceae became important in pharmaceutic research because of the antifungal, bacteriostatic, and especially cytostatic capability of some chemical constituents of the leaves and bark.

The Annonaceae have enjoyed quite some attention from systematists in the 20th century. The Swedish botanist Robert Fries spent a lifelong career studying herbarium specimens, mainly originating from the Neotropics. From 1983 onwards, an international group of researchers has been assembling loads of data on morphology, anatomy, reproductive ecology, karyology, and other disciplines valuable for understanding the evolution of the magnoliid family. Yet when it comes to simply classifying the family, major problems are facing us. Of the estimated 2500 species that comprise the family, 900 are Neotropical, 450 are African, and the remaining part is Asian. Only recently Annonaceae in the latter area have started to be examined thoroughly. The knowledge bias towards Neotropical taxa of the family is brutally hampering our attempts to reconstruct the family phylogeny. In addition, only few attempts have been made to arrive at a phylogeny-based classification of the family.

The historical classification by Fries (1959) has been achieved primarily on the basis of floral characters. Analyses of pollen ultrastructure and rbcL data refute the higher level taxonomic units in the family proposed by Fries. Many of the actual phylogenetic studies focus primarily on informal genus groups. These groups incorporate extant hypotheses on intergeneric relationships, although their composition has been derived after phenetic analyses. So far, phylogenetic analyses on the basis of morphological, palynological and molecular data agree on the position of Anaxagorea as sister to the rest of the family, which is essentially divided into two main clades. The first clade is supported by inaperturate pollen. The second clade contains genera with monosulcate and disulculate pollen.

Mindful of the various non-monophyletic genera in need of revision, and of the overrepresentation of Neotropical samples, we have embarked on a project that aims at further unravelling the phylogeny of the Annonaceae and the composition of the two clades mentioned. A phylogeny of approximately 100 species, using trnL-F and rbcL, will be submitted shortly. Collaborators on this project are Paul Bygrave and Mark Chase (Jodrell Laboratory, RBG Kew), Jessica Oosterhof and Henk 't Hart (NHN Utrecht), and Johan Mols and Paul Keßler (NHN Leiden). Meanwhile, we are extending our data matrix by adding matK as a third locus.

Phylogeny and evolution of Guatteria

R.H.J. Erkens MSc, Dr L.W. Chatrou, Dr J. Koek-Noorman and Prof. P.J.M. Maas - NHN Utrecht

The Neotropical genus Guatteria is the largest genus of Annonaceae, comprising 265 species. It is distributed throughout the Neotropics, mainly in wet forest areas, where the species often are key ecological organisms. Because of its evolutionary success, ecological importance, and widespread distribution, this genus potentially provides an important case for the study of speciation processes, key innovations that promoted rapid diversification, and biogeographic processes. This is impeded, however, by major problems concerning taxonomy and classification due to a low morphological and anatomical diversity within the genus. Revision of the genus dates back to Fries’s treatment (1939) and to date Guatteria is the only major genus of Neotropical Annonaceae awaiting revision. Preliminary analyses using rbcL and trnL-F support the monophyly of the genus.

The aim of this Ph.D. project is to arrive at a well-resolved phylogeny of approximately 60 species of Guatteria by using molecular characters from multiple loci, particularly rbcL, rbcL-atpB intergenic spacer, trnL intron and trnL-F intergenic spacer, and matK. Three small genera related to Guatteria, viz. Guatteriella (2 spp.), Guatteriopsis (5 spp.), and Heteropetalum (2 spp.) will be taken into account as well. The resulting scheme of relationships will allow to study patterns of morphological character diversification. Anatomical, and macro- and micromorphological characters (or combinations of these) that are synapomorphic for major groupings within the genus will be looked for. Using these characters, an intrageneric classification will be set up that reflects evolution and has predictive power for the classification of the remaining multitude of species.

Phylogeny of Miliusa and allied Asian Annonaceae using cpDNA and morphology

J.B. Mols, Dr. P.J.A. Keßler and Dr. B. Gravendeel - NHN Leiden; Dr. L.W. Chatrou - NHN Utrecht

Asian Annonaceae are extremely difficult to classify due to diffuse generic circumscriptions. A clear taxonomy is needed as the family is a major component of tropical lowland rainforests and very common in the Flora Malesiana area. Some species also contribute to the local economy by providing timber and fruits.

Tribe Saccopetaleae, presently comprising 6 genera, always seemed a well defined group based on morphological characters like valvate sepals and petals and stamens with connective without prolonged, specialised apex. But recent molecular studies suggests that this tribe is not monophyletic at all.

With this research we try to answer the following questions. Firstly, what are the relationships between the species of Miliusa and is the genus monophyletic. Secondly, is tribe Saccopetaleae monophyletic and what are the relationships between the genera. Thirdly, what are morphological key characters to define specific, generic and tribal boundaries?

To answer these questions both morphological and chloroplast DNA (matK and rbcL gene, trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer) data of a large number of Asian Annonaceae genera will be analysed using maximum parsimony. (nationaalherbarium.nl)

Pawpaw

Paw Paw extract contains (among other active ingredients) acetogenins which modulate the production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in mitochondria of cancer cells. This reduces the growth of blood vessels that nourish cancer cells. It also inhibits the growth of MDR (multiple drug resistance) cells. No other alternative or conventional cancer treatment (except treatments from trees similar to Paw Paw) has shown any effectiveness against MDR cells.

Paw Paw is a cousin of the graviola, guanabana, and soursop trees. However, the acetogenins extracted from Paw Paw are more active against cancer than those extracted from these other sources.

Development

Paw Paw research was performed at Purdue College by Jerry McLaughlin. The majority of the funding (20 years and about 5 million dollars) for this research was provided by NCI. Jerry McLaughlin now works with Nature Sunshine who manufacture Paw Paw twig extract in capsule form.

Blood Brain Barrier

Pawpaw is one of the few alternative cancer treatments that can pass the blood/brain barrier. The other alternative cancer treatments that can cross this barrier are Cantron and Protocel.

Effectiveness

Paw Paw seems to work on all types of cancers. An informal study of 100 cancer patients showed that Paw Paw was effective in half the cases. This is most interesting since Paw Paw seems to work the same way that Cancell (Cantron and Protocel) works and Cancell also has a 50% effectiveness as demonstrated in another informal study. However, Paw Paw gets higher marks in the effectiveness because, in the laboratory, it inhibits the growth of MDR (multiple drug resistance) cells. No other cancer treatment including chemo has shown any effectiveness against MDR cells. Jerry McLaughlin is in the negotiation process for starting clinical trials in conjunction with Harvard University. However, no formal clinical trials have yet occurred. For more on MDR cells, see the "Multiple Drug Resistant Cells" section above.

Multiple Drug Resistant Cells

Most tumors contain a small percentage, approximately 2%, of multiple drug-resistant cells (MDR cells). Chemo is not effective against these cells. After the first round of chemo, if the chemo is effective, all of the cells that are not MDR, do not show up in scans. Since this accounts for the vast majority of the tumor mass, the tumor will appear to be effectively gone (gone where is something to consider). However, the MDR cells remain and start to multiply. Eventually, a new tumor is formed that is entirely MDR. The next time chemo is used, none of the cells will disapear because they are all MDR. Paw Paw and Graviola are the only cancer treatments that have shown effectiveness against MDR cells.(alternativecancer.us)

Grenadilla

grenadilla, dailyfruits.blogspot.com, fruits health
Sweet grenadilla looks similar to the yellow passion fruit as they are under the same family. It is native to the Andes mountain of South America.

 * Common Name: Sweet Granadilla
* Scientific Name: Passiflora ligularis
* Specimens From: India
* Specimens Weight: 85 gm (average wgt per fruit)

Sweet grenadilla may look like the common passion fruit (yellow variety) but there are several differences. The tip of this fruit ending in the stem. The seeds are surrounded by transparent jelly-liked pulp instead of orange pulp. The outer shell are much harder and it does not wrinkle when ripens.

Sweet grenadilla is yellow to orange in color on the exterior. It may not be as popular but the taste is still as sweet with the unmistakable aroma of the passion fruit. The numerous black seeds are edible though it is slightly crunchy and hard.

grenadilla, dailyfruits.blogspot.com, fruit health

Passion Fruit

Parts used

Leaves, flowers, stems and passion fruits.

Phytochemicals

Passaflorine, Harmine, Harman, Harmol, Harmalin, Carotenoids, Vitexin, Isovitexin and Chrysin, Scopoletin, Carotenoids, Theobromine

Medicinal properties

The juice but mainly the leaves of passion fruit contain the alkaloids, including Harman, which has blood pressure lowering, sedative and antispasmodic action. The passion fruit leaves are used in many countries as medicines.

The flower of passion fruit has a mild sedative and can help to induce sleep. Passion flower has been used in the treatment of nervous and easily excited children, bronchial asthma, insomnia, nervous gastrointestinal disorders and menopausal problems. Passion flower is sometimes used as a mild hallucinogen.

Anti-cancer effect

Researchers at the University of Florida have found that yellow passion fruit extracts can kill cancer cells in vitro. The phytochemicals which are responsible for this anti-cancer effect are carotenoids and polyphenols.

Reduction of asthma symptoms

A study by Watson and his co-workers showed that the consumption of purple passion fruit peel extract can reduce asthma symptoms. They selected 42 patients received an oral administration of purple passion fruit extract. The passion fruit extract supplementation reduced the wheezing by 75 percent and increased forced vital capacity.

Other facts

When Spanish explored South America they discovered that passion fruit was used in native folk medicine as a sedative. When the Spanish brought the passion fruit to Europe the leaves were used as a sleep-inducing medicine. The name 'Passion' was given by Catholic missionaries in South America. The corona threads of the passion flower were seen as a symbol of the crown of thorns, the five stamens for wounds, the five petals and five sepals as the ten apostles (excluding Judas and Peter) and the three stigmas for the nails on the cross.
Other names

Passiflora, apricot vine, grenadilla, maracuja, maracuya (phytochemicals.info)