October 29, 2010

Santol

Santol
Santol is also knows as katon or wild mangosteen or sandorica. It's a tropical tree that originates in southeast Asia. This page provides some basic information on santol and some photos of santol.

Basic information on santol
  • Scientific name: Sandoricum koetjape
  • Synonym: Sandoricum indicum
  • Synonym: Sandoricum nervosum
  • Synonym: Melia koetjape
  • English: Santol
  • English: Wild mangosteen
  • English: Sandorica
  • Dutch: Santol
  • Dutch: Ketjapi
  • Spanish: Santol
  • German: Santol
  • Other: Kraton
  • Other: Kathon
  • Family: Meliaceae
  • Order: Sapindales

Origin: Santol is native to former Indochina and the Malaysian peninsular.
Distribution: Santol is cultivated in India, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Malaysia, Borneo, Indonesia, the Moluccas, Philippines, Mauritius
Evergreen or deciduous: Usually evergreen.
Fruits: The fruits are round with some wrinkles extending a short distance from the base. Their diameter is 4 to 8 centimeters. The color is yellowish, pinkish to golden. The whitish fluffy rind contains a milky juice. This edible juicy pulp is sweet or sour and surrounds 3 to 5 brown seeds which are inedible.
Height: Santol trees can be very high up to 45 meters tall.
Propagation: Propagation of santol is by seeds, air-layering, inarching, or by budding onto self rootstocks
Harvesting: Harvest by hand picking, or use a stick to twist the fruits off.
Uses: Fruits are usually eaten raw. Cut the fruit in half and spoon out the pulp.

Recipes Sweety Santol

Ingredient
  • Use 3 over ripe santol fruits
  • Sugar 1 cup
  • Salt 2 tablespoons
  • Boiled water 2 cups
  • Water ½ cup
Preparation method:
  • Mix salt in the boiled water and leave it for cooling down.
  • Peel and cut the satol fruits into small pieces, then keep them in salt water for 1 hour.
  • Boil the mixture of sugar and water until it is thick as a syrup, then add a little bit of salt to balance the taste.
  • Remove the santol from the salty water and put it in the syrup for 1 hour.
  • Serve the santol floating in the syrup cool (from refrigerator) or with ice.

Salmonberry

Salmonberry
Salmonberries are a raspberry shaped fruit ranging in color from pale yellow to deep orange found across much of the Pacific Northwest. The berries can be slightly bitter to sweet, depending upon maturity, and are often snacked upon by passing hikers. Salmonberries are usually not found for sale unless at small farm stands and markets, although they make passable jam and preserves if enough can be collected. Salmonberries are sometimes confused with cloudberries, another close relative, although salmonberries grow on a bush, while cloudberries tend to hug the ground.

Salmonberries grow on bushes of up to six feet (two meters) tall with broad, fuzzy leaves and thorns. Depending on the maturity of the bush, the thorns can be soft and yielding or firmer, posing a threat to clothing and unprotected body parts. Salmonberries have small pink flowers that mature into fruits between June and August, depending on the latitude and elevation of the bush. The plant thrives along streams and in moist forests, preferring damp soil and partial sunlight.

Most salmonberries come in the orange variety, which can be quite tasty. The darker reddish salmonberry tends not to be as flavorful and is generally avoided by all but the extremely hungry. When harvesting wild salmonberries, it is recommended to taste several fruits from the bush before collecting a large amount, as the berries are sometimes very bland in flavor.

Salmonberries are incredibly rich in vitamin C, more so than almost any other berry. This gives them a slightly tart and sometimes dry flavor, like rose hips. They also have a large number of antioxidants. Their healthy nature somewhat outweighs the sometimes disappointing flavor, especially when salmonberries are served with a variety of other vine fruits, like raspberries and blackberries. Salmonberries can lend an acidic note to an otherwise too sweet berry pie, for example.

Although salmonberries are not popularly cultivated, in some areas of the United States, there are commercial salmonberry farms. As a result, the fruit may become more readily available to consumers in the summer months. When looking for salmonberries, try to get them as fresh as possible. If the grocery store will allow you to do so, taste them first to ensure that you are getting a well flavored batch.

October 28, 2010

Salal Berry

salal berry
The name Salal comes from Pacific Northwest Native Americans. This plant was the first to get the attention of David Douglas when he landed on the Oregon Coast May 9th, 1825, he brought it back to Europe as a garden ornamental. These berries are great, they have a slight almond flavor and are similar to blue berries. You can make Salal jam, syrup, or mix them with other native berries such as Oregon Grape, Salmonberry, or Thimble Berries for pies, jams, and deserts. Salal makes a great wine (see recipe below) The coastal Native Americans used to dry them in large cakes weighing 10 to 15 pounds to store for winter use. Later when they wanted to eat them the cakes were soaked and then dipped in whale or seal oil. The leaves had medicinal uses among Native American tribes as well. The leaves were chewed to relieve colic or heartburn. The chewed leaves were used as a poultice to apply to wounds and sores. The leaves could also be used as a tea for coughs, TB, or diarrhea. Some of the Northwest tribes would blend Salal with Kinnikinnick to make a smoke blend.

Fresh Berry Soup
  • 1 quart fresh orange juice
  • 4 cups of any combination of yogurt, buttermilk, sour cream
  • 1 Tbsp. honey (more, to taste)
  • 2 Tbsp. fresh lemon or lime juice
  • dash of cinnamon
  • dash of nutmeg
  • 1 1/2 pints fresh berries (raspberries, Salal, strawberries, thimble, Salmonberry)
Whisk together everything except berries.
Chill thoroughly.
Wash and drain berries.
Blueberries or raspberries should be left whole. Large strawberries should be sliced.
When ready to serve, divide berries into individual serving bowls.
Ladle the soup on top.
Garnish with sprigs of fresh mint.

Salal Berry Salad Dressing

Ingredients:
  • Salal berry jam
  • Olive oil
  • Rice wine vinegar, or white wine vinegar
  • Tossed salad greens, or baby spinach
  • Dijon mustard (optional)
Directions:
Mix together equal amounts of salal berry jam, olive oil, rice wine vinegar or white wine vinegar. Serve over tossed greens. Add Dijon mustard for additional zest.

Salal Berry Wine
  • 4 lbs salal berries
  • 1 lbs granulated sugar
  • 6 pts water
  • tsp acid blend
  • 1 tsp pectic enzyme
  • 1 crushed Campden tablet
  • 1 tsp yeast nutrient
  • 1 pkg wine yeast
Put half the water on to boil and stir in sugar until dissolved. Meanwhile, wash berries and cull out any that are not ripe or are unsound. Put berries in nylon straining bag and tie closed. Place in primary and mash berries. Pour sugar-water over berries and add remaining water to help cooling. Cover with colth and set aside until room temperature. Stir in acid blend, yeast nutrient and crushed Campden. Recover and wait 12 hours. Stir in pectic enzyme, recover and set aside another 12 hours. Add activated yeast and recover primary. Stir twice daily until fermentation dies down. Remove straining bag, squeeze to extract maximum juice, and discard pulp. Allow to settle overnight and rack into secondary. Top up if required and fit airlock. Rack, top up and refit airlock after 60 days and again when wine clears. Set wine in cool, dark place for 4 months, checking airlock periodically. Stabilize, sweeten to taste (if desired) and set aside for 14 days. Rack into bottles and enjoy.

October 27, 2010

Snakefruit

Snakefruit
Bioactive properties of Snake fruit ( Salacca edulis Reinw ) and Mangosteen ( Garcinia mangostana ) and their influence on plasma lipid profile and antioxidant activity in rats fed cholesterol.

Hanna Leontowicz, Maria Leontowicz, Jerzy Drzewiecki, Ratiporn Haruenkit, Sumitra Poovarodom, Yong-Seo Park, Soon-Teck Jung, Seong-Gook Kang, Simon Trakhtenberg and Shela Gorinstein.

Two exotic fruits (Snakefruit and Mangosteen) were characterized by polyphenols, proteins and antioxidant potentials and by their influence on plasma lipids and antioxidant activity in rats fed cholesterol. The content of polyphenols (14.9±1.5 and 9.2±0.8 mg GAE g−1) and antioxidant potential (46.7±4.7 and 72.9±7.4 μmol TE g−1) in Snakefruit was significantly higher than in Mangosteen (P0.05).

Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four dietary groups: Control, Chol, Chol/Snake and Chol/Mangosteen. After 4 weeks of the experiment diets supplemented with Snakefruit and to a lesser degree with Mangosteen significantly hindered the rise in plasma lipids and hindered a decrease of antioxidant activity.

Changes were found in fibrinogen fraction, such as solubility and mobility by the number of protein bands detected in SDS-electrophoresis: Chol/Snake differed from Chol/Mangosteen. In conclusion, snakefruit and Mangosteen contain high quantity of bioactive compounds, therefore positively affect plasma lipid profile and antioxidant activity in rats fed cholesterol-containing diets. Such positive influence is higher in rats fed diet with added snake fruit.

Salak

salak
Salak Fruit (Salacca edulis) is one tropical fruit that is currently in great demand by the Japanese, America, and Europe, as well as Indonesia itself. Fruits have a relatively high nutrient content, can be consumed as fresh fruit can also be candied.

Salak plants prefer loose soil with sand content ranging from 45-85%, ie the soil with argillaceous to sandy clay texture. Salak Fruit grows well on neutral soil (pH 6-7), however the bark of plants can grow well in soil with medium acidity (pH 4.5 to 5.5) or slightly alkaline (pH 7.5 to 8.5 .)

Salak fruit mainly grown for its fruit is used, which is popular as a table fruit. Besides eaten fresh, also used to make candied salak, pickled, canned, or packaged as bark chips. Salak is a young used to rujak material. Umbut bark can be eaten. One of the benefits of fruits are as diarrhea medicine. The way is to consume 20 grams of fruit flesh are still young.

Strands of leather leaf and stalk child leaves can be used as a woven material, although of course after-prickly thorns removed first.

Because the thorn-thorn nearly impenetrable, often planted as a grove fence barking. Similarly, pieces of leaves which had dried stalk is often used to arm the fence, or to protect the middle of fruit trees from thieves.

Diverse types and deployment

Salak found growing wild in the wild in the southwestern part of Java and southern Sumatra. But the origins of bark that would not immediately known. Salak cultivated in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, to the east up to the Moluccas. Salak also been introduced to the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Australia and Fiji.

Some experts consider bark that grows in northern Sumatra originated from a different species, namely S. sumatrana Beccari. S. zalacca itself divided again into two botanical varieties, namely var. zalacca of Java and var. amboinensis (Becc.) Mogea of Bali and the island of Ambon.

Based on the cultivar, the Indonesian people know between 20 to 30 species under the species. Some of the more famous of them are barking Padangsidempuan of North Sumatra, from Jakarta Condet salak, salak salak pondoh from Yogyakarta and Bali. Condet Salak is a floral province of DKI Jakarta.

Salak pondoh

Salak pondoh is phenomenal. Were developed at roughly the 1980s, the bark is sweet and crunchy fruit soon became an important prima donna in the Jogjakarta region. In 1999, these fruit production in Yogyakarta increased 100% in five years, reaching 28,666 tons. Popularity barking in tongues pondoh Indonesian consumers could not be separated from the aroma and taste, the sweet taste fresh without sepat, although the fruit is ripe enough yet though.

The picture clearly shows the jump in production was rapidly than in previous years. Estimated production barked throughout Java until the 1980s only ranged from 7000-50000 tons, with the West Java region contributed approximately half of that amount.

Salak pondoh itself there are a variety of more variants. Some famous of which is pondoh super, pondoh black, ivory pondoh, pondoh nglumut large, and others. In the region of DIY, barking pondoh production centers are the slopes of Mount Merapi area which includes areas of Sleman District Turi, Sleman regency.

Salak pondoh nglumut or often also called salak nglumut, named after the village was producing superior varieties of salak Nglumut Village, Srumbung, Magelang is also located on a bed of Mount Merapi and included into the territory Srumbung, Magelang, Magelang regency, Central Java.

Now pondoh salak plantation has expanded everywhere, like the region Wonosobo, Banjarnegara, Banyumas, Brass and others.

October 26, 2010

Saguaro

The harvesting, processing, and primary consuming of saguaro fruit products occurs at the peak of summer heat and drought, providing a crucial source of very nutritious food and drink at the very time when the O'odham (especially the Tohono O'odham ) must [historically] mobilize effort to plant and cultivate their crops but when most other food sources are likely to be very low.

Not having a reliable water source, these Indians measured strength by the ability to go without water in their arid climate. According to the mythology of the O'odham people, the first Saguaro was created when a young woman sank into the earth and rose back out as a giant cactus, arms raised toward the heavens. They, too, considered themselves as belonging to the earth.

Long poles made from the wooden ribs of Saguaro skeletons were used to hook and knock down the fruits. Like tiny watermelons when split open by hand, the fruit reveals a red interior pulp and thousands of black-red seeds (smaller then poppy seeds). The pulp, tasting like a fig with a hint of strawberry, quenches the thirst.

Iitoi, a legendary hero and creator, was said to have instructed the people in the ancient tradition of making Saguaro wine. Water and Saguaro syrup was to be mixed in tightly woven baskets and then poured into earthen pots called ollas. Stored in a dark cool place, the mixture distilled for 3 to-7 days. This time of fermentation, turning bountiful fruit into spirituous wine, was cause for lively dancing, singing of desert rain songs and incantation of poems. Their word for "drunk" meant "holy, lyrical, bringing knowledge and vision."

Preserving the rest of the harvest involved soaking the fruit in ollas to loosen the seeds and then simmering the mixture over a fire. The resulting thick syrup, poured into ceramic holders and sealed with desert mud could be used later like sugar. Sun dried seeds, ground then mixed with water, and flour, were baked as bread or were turned into butter. These foods helped provide sustenance throughout the year, until the next harvest.

Sageretia

Sageretia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Sageretia Brongn.

Species

Sageretia (Sageretia or Mock Buckthorn) is a genus of about 35 species of shrubs and small trees in the family Rhamnaceae, native to southern and eastern Asia and northeast Africa. They have small green leaves 1.5–4 cm long, and a leathery multicoloured trunk. The flowers are small and inconspicuous; the fruit is a small edible drupe 1 cm diameter.

The genus is named after the French botanist Auguste Sageret.

Selected species

* Sageretia brandrethiana
* Sageretia camellifolia
* Sageretia filiformis
* Sageretia gracilis
* Sageretia hamosa
* Sageretia henryi
* Sageretia horrida
* Sageretia laxiflora
* Sageretia lucida
* Sageretia melliana
* Sageretia omeiensis
* Sageretia paucicostata
* Sageretia pycnophylla
* Sageretia randaiensis
* Sageretia rugosa
* Sageretia subcaudata
* Sageretia theezans

Cultivation and uses

The leaves are sometimes used as a substitute for tea in China, and the fruit are edible, though not an important crop. S. theezans, from southern China, is a popular species in bonsai. S. paucicostata, from northern China, is the most cold-tolerant species and is occasionally grown in gardens in Europe and North America, though it is not generally considered very attractive as an ornamental plant. It is reputedly used as a way of cleaning minor cuts and lacerations, ensuring any germs left over will not infect the wound. When ground up and mixed with salt, it forms a minor explosive capable of shattering glass.

October 24, 2010

Rose Apple

The Pacific Rose is beautifully distinctive, pink to red color, superb crunch and juicy flesh. It is a mostly sweet apple with very little tartness

Selection Information

Usage: The Pacific rose apple has a superb crunch, with firm, juicy, cream-colored flesh. The apple is thin-skinned for excellent eating. The Pacific Rose has a clean, refreshingly sweet flavor which also makes it a perfect desert apple.

Selection Storage: Good-quality Pacific Rose Apples will be firm with smooth, clean skin and have good color for the variety. Test the firmness of the apple by holding it in the palm of your hand. (Do not push with your thumb). It should feel solid and heavy, not soft and light.

To store, keep Pacific Rose apples as cold as possible in the refrigerator. Apples do not freeze until the temperature drops to 28.5 degrees F.

Avoid: Avoid product with soft or dark spots. Also if the apple skin wrinkles when you rub your thumb across it, the apple has probably been in cold storage too long or has not been kept cool.

Seasonal Information

The Pacific Rose apple is available June to September from New Zealand and December to March from Washington State.



Rowan

Rowan
The rowans or mountain-ashes are shrubs or small trees in genus Sorbus of family Rosaceae. They are native throughout the cool temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest species diversity in the mountains of western China and the Himalaya, where numerous apomictic microspecies occur. The name rowan was originally applied to the species Sorbus aucuparia, and is also used for other species in Sorbus subgenus Sorbus. Rowans are unrelated to the true ash trees which belong to the genus Fraxinus, family Oleaceae, though the leaves of both are superficially similar.

The name "rowan" is derived from the Old Norse name for the tree, raun. Linguists believe that the Norse name is ultimately derived from a proto-Germanic word raudnian meaning "getting red" and which referred to the red foliage and red berries in the autumn. Rowan is one of the familiar wild trees in the British Isles, and has acquired numerous English folk names. The following are recorded folk names for the rowan: Delight of the eye (Luisliu), Mountain ash, Quickbane, Quickbeam, Quicken (tree), Quickenbeam, Ran tree, Roan tree, Roden-quicken, Roden-quicken-royan, Round wood, Round tree, Royne tree, Rune tree, Sorb apple, Thor's helper, Whispering tree, Whitty, Wicken-tree, Wiggin, Wiggy, Wiky, Witch wood, Witchbane, Witchen, Witchen Wittern tree. Many of these can be easily linked to the mythology and folklore surrounding the tree. In Gaelic, it is caorann, or Rudha-an (red one, pronounced quite similarly to English "rowan").

Rowans are excellent small ornamental trees for parks, gardens and wildlife areas. Several of the Chinese species, such as White-fruited rowan (Sorbus glabrescens) are popular for their unusual berry colour, and Sargent's rowan (Sorbus sargentiana) for its exceptionally large clusters of fruit. Numerous cultivars have also been selected for garden use, several of them, such as the yellow-fruited Sorbus 'Joseph Rock', of hybrid origin. They are very attractive to fruit-eating birds, which is reflected in the old name "bird catcher".

The wood is dense and used for carving and turning and for tool handles and walking sticks. Rowan berries are a traditional source of tannins for mordanting vegetable dyes.

In the Canadian provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia this species is commonly referred to as a "Dogberry" tree.

Rosehip

The rose hip, or rose haw, is the pomaceous fruit of the rose plant, that typically is red-to-orange, but ranges from dark purple to black in some species. Rose hips begin to form in spring, and ripen in late summer through autumn.

Health benefits
  • Rose hips contain vitamin C, some vitamin A and B, essential fatty acids and antioxidant flavonoids.
  • Particularly high in Vitamin C, with about 1700–2000 mg per 100 g in the dried product, one of the richest plant sources. RP-HPLC assays of fresh rose hips and several commercially available products revealed a wide range of L-ascorbic acid content, ranging from 0.03 to 1.3%.
Usage

  • Rose hips are used for herbal tea, jam, jelly, syrup, soup, beverages, pies, bread, wine, and marmalade.
  • A few rose species are sometimes grown for the ornamental value of their hips, such as Rosa moyesii, which has prominent large red bottle-shaped fruits.
  • Rose hips have recently become popular as a healthy treat for pet chinchillas. Chinchillas are unable to manufacture their own Vitamin C and lack the proper internal organs to process many vitamin-C rich foods. Rose hips provide a sugarless, safe way to increase the Vitamin C intake of chinchillas and guinea pigs.
  • Rose hips are also fed to horses. The dried and powdered form can be fed at a maximum of 1 tablespoon per day to improve coat condition and new hoof growth.

The fine hairs found inside rose hips are used as itching powder. Dried rosehips are also sold for primitive crafts and home fragrance purposes. Rosehips are scented with essential oils and can be used as a potpourri room air freshener.

Roses are propagated from hips by removing the seeds from the aril (the outer coating) and sowing just beneath the surface of the soil. Placed in a cold frame or a greenhouse, the seeds take at least three months to germinate.

In World War II, the people of Britain were encouraged through letters to The Times newspaper, articles in the British Medical Journal, and pamphlets produced by Claire Loewenfeld, a dietitian working for Great Ormond Street Hospital for Sick Children to gather wild-grown rose hips and to make a Vitamin C syrup for children. This was because German submarines were sinking many commercial ships: citrus fruits from the tropics were very difficult to import.

Rosehips were used in many food preparations by the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
  • Rose hips are used for colds and influenza.
  • Rose hips can be used to make Palinka, a traditional Hungarian alcoholic beverage.
  • Rose hips of some species, especially Rosa canina (Dog Rose) and R. majalis, have been used as a source of Vitamin C. Rose hips are commonly used as a herbal tea, often blended with hibiscus and as an oil. They can also be used to make jam, jelly, marmalade and wine. Rose hip soup, "nyponsoppa," is especially popular in Sweden. Rhodomel, a type of mead, is made with rose hips.

October 20, 2010

Malay Apple

Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry
Eugenia malaccensis L.
Jambos malaccensis DC.

A delight to the eye in every respect, the Malay apple is much admired for the beauty of the tree, its flowers and its colorful, glistening fruits, without parallel in the family Myrtaceae. Botanically identified as Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry (syns. Eugenia malaccensis L., Jambos malaccensis DC.), this species has earned a few alternate English names including Malay rose-apple, mountain apple, water apple, and, unfortunately, Otaheite apple, which is better limited to the ambarella, Spondias dulcis Park., and cashew, or French cashew (Guyana) or Otaheite cashew (India) because of its resemblance to the cashew apple, the pseudofruit or swollen fruit-stalk of the cashew nut.

In Malaya there are many local names including jambu merah, jambu bar, jambu bol, jambu melaka, jambu kling and jambu kapal. In Thailand, it is chom-phu-sa-raek or chom-phu-daeng; in Cambodia, chompuh kraham; in Vietnam, man hurong tau; in Indonesia, darsana, jambu tersana, or djamboo bol; in the Philippines, makopang-kalabau or tersana; in Guam, makupa; in Tahiti, ahia; in Hawaii, ohia. In the French language it is jambosier rouge, poire de Malaque, pomme Malac (corrupted to pomerac), pomme de Malaisie, and pomme de Tahiti. Among Spanish names are: pomarosa, or pomarrosa, Malaya (Puerto Rico); manzana (Costa Rica), marañon japonés (EI Salvador), pomarosa de Malaca (Colombia); pera de agua or pomagás (Venezuela); and marañon de Curacao (Panama), though the somewhat similar plant in Curacao is S. samarangense Merr. & Perry, locally called cashu di Surinam, in Papiamento, Curacaose appel, in Dutch. The latter species has yellowish-white flowers and light-red, greenish-white or cream-colored fruits. (See Java apple pp. 381-2.)

Glossy, red, juicy, Malay apples
Fig. 102: Glossy, red, juicy, Malay apples (Syzygium malaccense) are sold in markets and along streets in warm areas of the Old and New World.

Description

The Malay apple tree is rather fast-growing, reaching 40 to 60 ft (12-18 m) in height, and has an erect trunk to 15 ft (4.5 m) in circumference and a pyramidal or cylindrical crown. Its evergreen leaves are opposite, short-petioled, elliptic-lanceolate or oblanceolate; soft-leathery, dark-green and fairly glossy on the upper surface, paler beneath; 6 to 18 in (15-45 cm) long, 3 1/2 to 8 in (9-20 cm) wide. The veins are indistinct above, but they and the pale midrib are prominent on the underside. New growth is wine-red at first, changing to pink-buff. The abundant flowers, only mildly fragrant, and borne on the upper trunk and along leafless portions of mature branches in short-stalked clusters of 2 to 8, are 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) wide, and composed of a funnel-like base topped by 5 thick, green sepals, 4 usually pinkish-purple to dark-red (sometimes white, yellow or orange) petals, and numerous concolorous stamens to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long tipped with yellow anthers. Though showy, the flowers are hidden by the foliage until they fall and form a lovely carpet on the ground. The fruit, oblong, obovoid, or bell-shaped, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm.) long, 1 to 3 in (2.5-7.5 cm) wide at the apex, has thin, smooth, waxy skin, rose-red or crimson or sometimes white with streaks of red or pink, and white, crisp or spongy, juicy flesh of very mild, sweetish flavor. There may be a single oblate or nearly round seed or 2 hemispherical seeds, 5/8 to 3/4 in (1.6-2 cm) in width, light-brown externally, green internally and somewhat meaty in texture. The fruits of some trees are entirely seedless.

Food Uses

The ripe fruit is eaten raw though many people consider it insipid. It is best stewed with cloves or other flavoring and served with cream as dessert. Asiatic people in Guyana stew the peeled fruit, cooking the skin separately to make a sirup which they add to the cooked fruit. Malayan people may add the petals of the red-flowered hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) to make the product more colorful. Malay apples are often cooked with acid fruits to the benefit of both. They are sometimes made into sauce or preserves. The slightly unripe fruits are used for making jelly and pickles..

In Puerto Rico, both red and white table wines are made from the malay apple. The fruits are picked as soon as they are fully colored (not allowed to fall) and immediately dipped in boiling water for one minute to destroy surface bacteria and fungi. The seeds are removed and, for red wine, the fruits are passed through a meat grinder and the resulting juice and pulp weighed. To this material, they add twice the amount of water and 1 1/2 lbs (680 g) of white sugar per gallon, and pour into sterilized barrels with the mouth covered soon with cheesecloth. Yeast is added and a coil inserted to maintain circulation of the water. The barrels are kept in the coolest place possible for 6 months to 1 year, then the wine is filtered. It will be of a pale-rose color so artificial color is added to give it a rich-red hue. In making white wine, the fruits are peeled, the only liquid is the fruit juice, and less sugar is used, only 1 1/4 lbs (565 g) per gallon, so as to limit alcohol formation over a fermenting period of 3 to 6 months.

In Indonesia, the flowers are eaten in salads or are preserved in sirup. Young leaves and shoots, before turning green, are consumed raw with rice or are cooked and eaten as greens.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Moisture  90.3-91.6 g
Protein  0.5-0.7 g
Fat  0.1-0.2 g
Fiber  0.6-0.8 g
Ash   0.26-0.39 g
Calcium 5.6-5.9 mg
Phosphorus  11.6-17.9 mg
Iron  0.2-0.82 mg
Carotene  0.003-0.008 mg
(Vitamin A)  3-10 I.U.
Thiamine  15-39 mcg
Riboflavin  20-39 mcg
Niacin  0.21-0.40 mg
Ascorbic Acid  6.5-17.0 mg

*According to analyses made in Hawaii, El Salvador and Ghana.

Other Uses

Wood: The timber is reddish, soft to hard, tough and heavy, but inclined to warp. It is difficult to work, but is employed for construction, railway ties, and for fashioning bowls and poi-boards in Hawaii.

Medicinal Uses: According to Akana's translation of Hawaiian Herbs of Medicinal Value, the astringent bark has been much used in local remedies. It is pounded together with salt, the crushed material is strained through coconut husk fiber, and the juice poured into a deep cut. "The patient must exercise absolute self-control as the liquid bums its way into the flesh and nerves."

In the Molucca, or Spice, Islands, a decoction of the bark is used to treat thrush. Malayans apply a powder of the dried leaves on a cracked tongue. A preparation of the root is a remedy for itching. The root acts as a diuretic and is given to alleviate edema. The root bark is useful against dysentery, also serves as an emmenagogue and abortifacient. Cambodians take a decoction of the fruit, leaves or seeds as a febrifuge. The juice of crushed leaves is applied as a skin lotion and is added to baths. In Brazil, various parts of the plant are used as remedies for constipation, diabetes, coughs, pulmonary catarrh, headache and other ailments. Seeded fruits, seeds, bark and leaves have shown antibiotic activity and have some effect on blood pressure and respiration.

Rose Apple

The Pacific Rose is beautifully distinctive, pink to red color, superb crunch and juicy flesh. It is a mostly sweet apple with very little tartness

Selection Information

Usage: The Pacific Rose apple has a superb crunch, with firm, juicy, cream-colored flesh. The apple is thin-skinned for excellent eating. The Pacific Rose has a clean, refreshingly sweet flavor which also makes it a perfect desert apple.

Selection & Storage: Good-quality Pacific Rose Apples will be firm with smooth, clean skin and have good color for the variety. Test the firmness of the apple by holding it in the palm of your hand. (Do not push with your thumb). It should feel solid and heavy, not soft and light.

To store, keep Pacific Rose apples as cold as possible in the refrigerator. Apples do not freeze until the temperature drops to 28.5 degrees F.

Avoid: Avoid product with soft or dark spots. Also if the apple skin wrinkles when you rub your thumb across it, the apple has probably been in cold storage too long or has not been kept cool.

Seasonal Information

The Pacific Rose apple is available June to September from New Zealand and December to March from Washington State.

Pacific Rose Apple Nutritional Information


















Serving Size: 1 medium apple (154g)
Amount Per Serving

Calories 80
Calories from Fat 0

% Daily Value*
Total Fat 0
0%
Cholesterol 0mg
0% 
Sodium 0mg
0% 
Total Carbohydrate 22g
7% 
Dietary Fiber 5g

Sugars 17g

Protein 0g

Vitamin A 2%
Vitamin C 20%
Calcium 2%
Iron 2%
*Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.

Source: PMA's Labeling Facts

 
Apples are very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. They're also a good source of Dietary Fiber and Vitamin C.

Apple Tips & Trivia
  • The Pacific Rose is a cross between the Gala and the Splendor apple varieties.

  • Rub cut apples with lemon juice to keep slices and wedges creamy white for hours.

  • Store apples in a plastic bag in the refrigerator away from strong-odored foods such as cabbage or onions to prevent flavor transfer.

  • Apples are the second most important of all fruits sold in the supermarket, ranking next to bananas.

  • Tens of thousands of varieties of apples are grown worldwide

  • The history of apple consumption dates from Stone Age cultivation in areas we now know as Austria and Switzerland.

  • In ancient Greece, tossing an apple to a girl was a traditional proposal of marriage; catching it was acceptance

  • Folk hero Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman) did indeed spread the cultivation of apples in the United States. He knew enough about apples, however, so that he did not distribute seeds, because apples do not grow true from seeds. Instead, he established nurseries in Pennsylvania and Ohio.

  • Three medium-sized apples weigh approximately one pound.

  • One pound of apples, cored and sliced, measures about 4 1/2 cups.

  • Purchase about 2 pounds of whole apples for a 9-inch pie.

  • One large apple, cored and processed through a food grinder or processor, makes about 1 cup of ground apple.

October 19, 2010

Lillipilli

Lillipilli, fruits health, dailyfruits.blogspot.com
This is about lillipilli fruit. Numerous from rainforest species to dry forest. The genus comprises about 1100 species. 

Kingdom: Plantae ; unranked: Angiosperms; unranked: Eudicots ; unranked: Rosids; Order: Myrtales ; Family: Myrtaceae ; Genus: Syzygium

Latin Name:
  • Acmena smithii (Eugenia smithii) -= most suitable for cooler climate
  • Syzygium luehmannii (Red Lilly Pilly, Riberry) - most commercial
  • Syzygium oleosum (Blue Lilly Pilly),
  • Syzygium australe, commonly called Brush Cherry or Scrub Cherry.
  • Syzygium fribrosum is a rainforest tree native to monsoon forests of Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Australia.
  • Syzygium anisatum (formerly Backhousia anisata and Anetholea anisata), ringwood or aniseed tree is a rare Australian rainforest tree with an aromatic leaf that has an essential oil profile comparable to true aniseed.
  • Syzygium suborbiculare, the red bush apple, is a small understorey tree native to open forests and woodland of northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.
  • Syzygium paniculatum - the magenta lillipilli (syn. Eugenia paniculata), also known by the common name magenta cherry, is a broad dense bushy rainforest tree native to New South Wales. It grows to a height of 15 m with trunk diameter up to 35 cm. Leaves are 3-9 cm long, opposite, simple and slightly obovate, tapering at the leaf base. The leaves are dark glossy above, and paler below. White flowers are produced in clusters. The edible fruit is usually magenta, but can be white, pink or purple.

It is commonly cultivated in eastern Australia and elsewhere. Well known as an edible wild fruit with a pleasantly sour apple like flavor. It is eaten fresh or cooked into jams.

Common:
Common names include Riberry, Small Leaved Lilli Pilli, Cherry Satinash, Cherry Alder, or Clove Lilli Pilli.

Origin:
Range extends from Africa and Madagascar through southern Asia east through the Pacific. Its highest levels of diversity occur from Malaysia to northeastern Australia, where many species are very poorly known and many more have not been described taxonomically.

Distribution:
The habitat is Australian riverine, littoral, subtropical or tropical rainforest. It grows on volcanic soils or deep sandy soils between the Macleay River in New South Wales to near Cairns in tropical Queensland. It is commonly grown as an ornamental tree, and for its fruit, known as a Riberry.

Anecdotal:
Syzygium is a genus of flowering plants that belongs to the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.

Due to their widespread distribution in coastal areas they may be considered a valuable famine food if other food sources are not readily available.

The lovely, lilting name of Lilly Pilly is a lot easier to get your mouth round than the proper name of Syzygium (try saying that one fast!). There are over 60 different species of Syzygium in Australia and the other popular name given to them is Riberry. The fruit varies immensely from one species to the next. The sweetest is from the Magenta Lilly Pilly (Syzygium paniculatum) but the most popular for commercial use is Syzygium luehmannii (this is the proper Riberry). This is a fairly tart little creature but it bears a large fruit and has even managed to come up with a seedless variety which is now used extensively in production of jams, jellies, cordials, etc. What do you do with a lillipilli? Just about anything you want. Pucker up and eat them straight from the tree.

It's related to the clove and there are over 60 varieties of edible Lilly Pilly ranging from the very bland to the highly fragrant. Riberry, Small Leaf Lilly Pilly and Cherry Alder.

Appearance:
Small to medium tree. Evergreen, pyramidal tree 5- 30 meters tall. In its natural environment can be a large forest tree but under cultivation tree rarely grows to more than 10m.

Occasionally reaching 30 meters in height and a 90 cm in trunk diameter. The tree's crown is dense with small leaves, above a tall straight trunk. Large trees are buttressed at the base. The bark is red brown, light grey or pinkish grey with soft papery scales.

The small, glossy, lance-shaped leaves are pink/red when young. They are opposite, simple, entire, lanceolate to ovate. 4 to 5 cm long drawn out to a long prominent point. Leaf stalks 2 to 3 mm long.

Flowers form in November or December. They are in small panicles at the ends of branchlets, half the length of the leaves or less. The white or cream petals form in fours or fives, 1.5 mm long. Stamens 2 to 5 mm long.

Taste:
The berry has a tart, cranberry-like flavor, that has a hint of cloves. It has been popular as a gourmet bushfood since the early 1980’s, and is commercially cultivated on a small-scale basis. A combination of cardamon and ginger with backtones of clove, lime and pine.

The good flavored variants tended to have higher amounts of certain isolates (essentail oil components), like myrcene (occurs in bay leaves), pinene (occurs in pine trees), ocimene (occurs in brazilian cherries), limone (occurs in citrus, especially lemons), and phillandrene (occurs in ginger), and many other many others as well. And the complexity of essential components reflects the complexity of riberry's flavour. (unlike lemon myrtle with its single citral note).

It's was also interesting to compare the good flavored riberry with the poorer flavord riberries. The more resinous flavored riberries, which don't taste that good, seemed to be higher in phillandrene, and didn't have most of the other components. There was also a Eucalyptus flavored chemotype (containing high cineole levels), which is ok,but no where near as interesting as the classic riberry flavor.

There maybe some reasonable riberry selections being grown in bushfood orchards, but I haven't seen any recent selections that I could say are outstanding varieties from a flavor point-of-view. (I'm sure there must be people out there growing good flavored riberry orchards that i don't know about. )

Eat alone with:
Fruits are not always palatable alone and are best used in conjunction with other foods, tending to aromatic ingredients.

Eat with:
Can be made into pastes, added to curries, stews, ice creams, a baste for meats, served with cheeses.

Other Uses:
The fruit is most commonly used to make a distinctively flavored jam, and is also used in sauces, syrups and confectionery.

Can be used with sugar syrup to make glace lillipilli (riberry). Suitable for use with chocolates.

For fruit-type flavor in sweet and savory products. Whole fruit can be blended for use in ice cream, chocolates and sauces for meat dishes. The red color pales to pink on cooking.

Put them in vinegar for a very elegant dressing. Jam them, jelly them or cordial them (they make a highly refreshing summer drink). Use them in chutneys, meat sauces, fruit salads, salsa...just about any dish which comes alive with a touch of tartness is fair game for the common Lillipilli.

Can make Lilly Pilly Vinegar.

Fruiting:
Small (1 cm) pink-white berry. Appear in clusters from second year and older wood. An unusual factor of this tree is cauliflory. Where flower and fruit form on the main stems or woody trunks rather than from new growth and shoots.

The fruit matures from December to February, being a pear shaped red berry, known as a Riberry, growing to 13 mm long, covering a single seed, 4 mm in diameter.

Growing:
Use in a food forest environment.

Propagation:
Seed germination is unreliable, complete after 25 days, however cuttings strike readily. Plant in well-drained soil. Keep the soil at 65-80F and shelter young plants from cold and direct sunlight. Seed preparation of Syzygiums, Acmena's and all those other lillipilli plants, just pretend you are the bird. I mean dont go and eat it etc etc...but remove all the flesh and soak. Most germinate within 6 weeks of sowing depending on the time of year.

Pollination:
Self or cross (uncertain)

Flowers:
Flowers are small and fluffy, with a creamy white color. Flowering is generally in Spring, and is followed by large bunches of the fruit which ripen a couple of months later. Fruits attract many kinds of birds.

Seeds:
Single seed. Seeds should be planted fresh as they don't store well.

Cuttings:
Will grow from cuttings.

Growth Habit:
Small to medium tree. Evergreen, pyramidal tree 5- 30 metres tall. In its natural environment can be a large forest tree but under cultivation tree rarely grows to more than 10m.

Occasionally reaching 30 meters in height and a 90 cm in trunk diameter. The tree's crown is dense with small leaves, above a tall straight trunk. Large trees are buttressed at the base. The bark is red brown, light grey or pinkish grey with soft papery scales.

The small, glossy, lance-shaped leaves are pink/red when young. They are opposite, simple, entire, lanceolate to ovate. 4 to 5 cm long drawn out to a long prominent point. Leaf stalks 2 to 3 mm long.

Pruning:
Can be pruned to assist commercial handling.

Soil:
Prefers rich, moist but will tolerate sandy loam.

Aspect:
The lillipilli is fairly hardy. Grows naturally in a sub-tropical climate. However they can tolerate quite low temperatures in winter and mild frost, particularly after establishment. No damage has been shown to occur with temperatures as low as 0°C. High summer temperatures, whilst flowering and particularly fruiting, can be a problem.

Establishing any lillipilli under a reasonably dense evergreen canopy is the key to getting them survive to maturity in a cold temperate climate - as lillipilli are sensitive to heavy frosts (especially below about minus 4 C degrees) when young and exposed.

A mate told me that he saw a mature riberry lillipilli  (Syzygium leuhamannii) growing on the New England University grounds at Armidale.

That's really something.

Certainly to grow riberry or blue lillipilli on the New England Tablelands would require that under canopy shelter, tree guards, plus trunk wrapping when the trees are young, and consider covering trees on very cold nights with some hession. Also, retain your lower branches to provide air insulation (i.e. don't prune off as the tree grows).

All-up, it won't be easy to get lillipilli's to establish in a cold clime like Glenn Innes - but not impossible if frost protected at least until maturity (4 plus meters).

It would also help if you are on a hill, and not in a frost hollow.

Diseases:
Some sooty moulds cited.

Pests:
Fruit are eaten by birds.

Insects:
The flowers tend to attract a wide range of foraging insects.

Nutrition:
None cited.

Ethnomedicinal:
None cited. A relative to Cloves

Medical Warnings:
None given.

Lillipilli Fruit

lilly pilly, fruits and health
I noticed there was a search for the nutritional information on lillipilli today. Given I have 3 of them growing I thought I would follow up with a post on them. Aboriginal tribes long ago discovered the therapeutic properties of this bush native, which has small exotic fruits. The lillipilli fruit has since been found to possess good astringent properties, a high vitamin C and anti-oxidant content, and fruit acids to exfoliate the skin. 

Contents provide:
  • Energy kJ 89
  • Protein g 0.3 g
  • Fat g 0.1
  • Carbs g 5.0
  • Fibre g 1.1
  • Vit C mg 1
  • Na mg 22
  • K mg 35
  • Mg mg 3
  • Ca mg 8
  • Fe mg 0.1
  • Zn mg 0.1 

These are Australian native trees with glossy, green leaves. They produce creamy white flowers in spring and summer, followed by attractive white, pink, magenta or purple fruit. Raw lillipilli berries don't have a sweet taste, because they don't contain much natural sugar. However, when sugar is added to the berries to make cordial, they taste delicious. Here is a recipe from Jackie French for  lillipilli cordial

Ingredients:
  • 2 cups lillipillies
  • 4 cups water
  • 1 teaspoon tartaric acid
  • 2 cups sugar juice of 2 lemons Method Put the lillipillies, water, tartaric acid, sugar and lemon juice into a stainless steel saucepan.

Tip: pick the lillipillies when they've just changed color. If left to ripen for too long they will become bitter.

Boil for about 5 minutes, or until the lillipillies are just starting to soften. Mash the fruit, then tip the mixture into a strainer and strain out the lumps. Pour the liquid into sterilized bottles. Use like ordinary cordial, put a splash in a glass and add water to taste.

Note:
  • The cordial should keep for at least a fortnight, and possibly longer, but remember it doesn't contain preservatives, so it won't last long. Keep it in a cool place, in the fridge in very hot climates, or on a cool bench in more temperate places. 
  • If it starts to bubble, turn cloudy, or looks or smells in any way odd or different from yesterday, throw it out! If possible, use several small bottles rather than one or two large bottles, as the fewer times your cordial is opened, the longer it may keep.
  • If you want to make a really big batch, it's best to freeze it till needed. And one for lillipilli jelly fruit for jelly should be fully matured, but not over-ripe. Adjust the quantities to suit the amount of fruit you have. Lillipilli fruit water sugar lemon juice:
  1. Put lillipilli fruit into a preserving pan or heavy saucepan with enough water to just come to the top of the fruit but not cover it. Boil rapidly till the fruit is soft. 
  2. Strain through a clean cloth (eg muslin) and allow all the liquid to run through. Do not press the fruit as this may make the jelly cloudy. 
  3. Measure the liquid and allow a cup of sugar for each cup of liquid. Put the strained liquid, sugar and juice of a lemon into a saucepan and bring to the boil. Boil until it jells when tested on a cold plate. 
  4. Bottle in sterilised jars. (Hint: add extra lemon juice or use a jam setting product containing pectic, like Jamsetta, if the jelly is slow to jell.) 

October 16, 2010

Riberry

Riberry (Syzygium leuhmannii) is a beautiful productive tree, yielding an abundant crop of delicious, small fruits. Of all the native Lilly Pilly species, it has the greatest commercial potential for the development of a local bush food industry. As an ornamental plant, Riberry is a popular native rainforest species, as it grows well in a range of situations - gardens, street trees, parks and rainforest regeneration plots. At least twice a year, Riberry produces flushes of bright pinkish new growth that will last for several weeks. It grows best with plenty of water, fertile well drained soils and full sun or partial shade. Riberry can be easily distinguished from other Lilly Pillies by its small leaves, a feature which gave rise to one of its common names Small-leaved Water Gum. Riberry is native to rainforests from Kempsey in NSW to Cooktown in north eastern Queensland. In the rainforest, the trees will reach 30m, but under cultivation and in full sun they will only reach height of 5m to 10m. In such open sunny areas, the tree will retain its branches to ground level.

Climatically, Riberry is very adaptable growing well as far south as Melbourne and in all areas that are not too dry or too cold. Mature trees will take moderate frosts, although young trees should be given some protection from extreme cold to do well. It is valued for its dense shade in warm areas and also its hardiness. The trees are moderately fast growing and will tolerate full sun from an early age. Being native to the Northern Rivers, they will never become a weed, unlike many exotic species. It may be propagated either by seed or cuttings.

A Delicious Harvest

A very good reason to grow Riberry is to harvest its delectable, spicy fruit. Strangely, many people consider this to be more of an inconvenience rather than an asset, with the fruit being left for the birds or to rot on the ground. The small pear shaped fruit ranges in colour from bright pink to magentas and purples. It is rich in various aromatic compounds such as myrcene (nutmeg), pinene (many herbs) and limonene (bay leaves). The fruit's spicy flavour accounts for another of Riberry's common names - Clove Lilly Pilly. It may be harvested in the months December through to March depending on the area. Mature trees can yield prolific quantities of fruit - up to 80kg - more than most people could ever use in one short season. Fortunately, the fruit may be frozen with no special preparation, just place in airtight freezer bags and then put it in the freezer. This way you can extend the Riberry harvest for many months. Before using in the kitchen or freezing, it will be necessary to go over the fruit, discarding any stems or bruised fruit.

Pick the fruit as soon as the fruit ripens on the tree, to get in early before the birds. Only small trees may be efficiently harvested, so it may be worth your while to prune your trees so they do not grow too tall. Apparently, cultivars are now available which have been selected for their fruit bearing properties. When they will become widey available remains unknown.

In The Kitchen

Because of its rich spicy flavours, Ribery is particularly suited in sauces and chutneys for game meats (eg: kangaroo and venison), as well as for the more traditional poultry, lamb or pork. Evidently it does not compliment beef or fish very well. Riberry is also delicious in salads, vegetable dishes and desserts.

Seedless varieties are best used for cooking, as it is not necessary to remove the seed prior to use. As with most bush foods, the flavor of Riberry is quite strong, Thus, it will be necessary to balance this intense flavor with other ingredients and to use less of the fruit rather than more. I have made a delicious Riberry chutney and it was not even necessary to add any spices, as all the flavor was provided by the fruit alone. I am looking forward to next season's crop to try some jams and sauces. Needless to say I was so impressed by the chutney, that I purchased several trees to plant in our orchard so I will have my own Riberry supply.

Riberry is an excellent choice as a specimen tree, providing dense shade in summer as well as beautiful foliage and flowers. Then there is the added bonus of yummy fruit. It really does not get much better than that when you are selecting a tree for your garden or orchard.

Red Mombin

No other species of Spondias is so extensively used in tropical America as this. In many parts of Mexico and Central America it is a fruit of the first importance. It occurs in a wide range of seedling races or forms, and is capable of great improvement by selection and vegetative propagation. While scarcely so good as the imbu, the better varieties are pleasantly flavored and attractive in appearance.

The red mombin is a small tree, often spreading in habit. The trunk is thick and the branches are stout and stiff. Its native home is tropical America, where it reaches a maximum height of about 25 feet. The leaves are 5 to 8 inches long, with 16 to 21 oblong-elliptic, oblique, subserrate leaflets 1 inch to 1 1/2 inches in length. The purplish maroon flowers are produced in small unbranched racemes about 1/2 inch long.

The fruits, borne singly or in clusters of two or three, are quite variable in size and form. Commonly they are oval or roundish, but they may be oblong, obovoid, or somewhat piriform. They range from 1 to 2 inches in length, and from yellow to deep red in color. The seed is oblong, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, and rough on the surface. The season of ripening in most parts of tropical America is August to November.

In most Spanish-speaking countries this species is known as ciruela (plum), a name which has been corrupted in the Philippines to siniguelas. In parts of Mexico and in Guatemala it is known by the Aztec name jocote (xocotl). The common name in the French colonies is prunier d'Espagne, prunier rouge, and mombin rouge, and in the British colonies it is sometimes called Spanish-plum. Spondias purpurea, L. is a botanical synonym of S. Mombin, L.

J. N. Rose 1 describes a number of different forms observed in Mexico. These races (perhaps species in some instances) deserve further study.

The red mombin is abundant in Mexico and Central America from sea-level up to elevations of 5000 or 6000 feet. The value of the annual crop in Mexico is estimated at more than $70,000. The fruit may be eaten fresh or may be boiled and dried, in which latter condition it can be kept for several months. When fresh it has a subacid spicy flavor somewhat resembling that of the cashew, but less aromatic. Some varieties are sour, and others have very little flesh; the best are pleasantly flavored and have about the same amount of flesh and seed as a very large olive.

In Cuba several seedling races are grown. They are usually distinguished as ciruela roja, ciruela amarilla, and so on. In Brazil the species appears to be little known. It is successfully cultivated in south Florida, as far north as Palm Beach or perhaps farther. Varieties from high elevations in tropical America should prove slightly hardier than those from the seacoast. No trees have been grown to fruiting age in California, so far as is known. In favorable situations they might succeed there if given protection during the first few winters.

The tree is semi-deciduous. The leaves fall toward the end of the cool season and are soon replaced by new ones.

The character of the soil does not seem to be important. Good trees can be found growing on shallow sandy land, on gravel, and on heavy clay loam. A rich, moist, fairly heavy loam perhaps suits it best. Cuttings take root so readily that large limbs, cut and inserted in the ground as fenceposts, will often develop into flourishing trees. P. J. Wester recommends that cuttings 20 to 30 inches long, of the previous season's growth (or even older wood) should be set in the ground to a depth of about 12 inches, in the positions which the trees are to occupy permanently. The rainy season is the best time to do this. The trees should stand about 25 feet apart, unless the soil be very poor, in which case 20 feet will be sufficient. No horticultural varieties have as yet been established. By selecting from the existing seedlings in tropical America, many good ones could be obtained.

The firm, yellow, juicy flesh is deliciously fragrant and sweet and more like pineapple or apple than mango. Mombins are also very fragile, so are seldom exported. They can be eaten raw with a little sweetener or combined with other fruits in a salad. They can also be poached, pickled, dried, or made into jams, and they make a good addition to curries. The large, hard core may be cracked and eaten like a nut. The fruits are very rich in vitamin C and a good source of calcium and phosphorus.

Raspberry

Raspberry is a delicious fruit that is widely cultivated in all temperate regions of the world. There are eight different species of raspberries in the world, though the most popular ones comprise of red raspberry cultivars, derived from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. The golden raspberries, yellow raspberries or (rarely) orange raspberries are ‘albino-like’ pale-fruited variants of the commercially grown red and black raspberry species. The small, innocuous looking raspberries pack a high degree of nutritional value within itself, resulting in numerous health and nutrition benefits to those who eat them.

Nutritional Value of Raspberry

Given below is the amount of nutrients in 100 gm of raspberry:
  • Total Fat - 1 gm
  • Sodium - 1 mg
  • Total Carbohydrates - 12 gm
  • Dietary Fiber - 7 gm
  • Sugars - 4 gm
  • Protein - 1 gm
  • Vitamin A - 33 IU
  • Vitamin C - 26.2 mg
  • Vitamin E - 0.87 mg
  • Vitamin K - 7.8 mcg
  • Thiamin - 0.032 mg
  • Riboflavin - 0.038 mg
  • Niacin - 0.598 mg
  • Vitamin B6 - 0.055 mg
  • Folate - 21 mcg
  • Pantothenic Acid - 0.329 mcg
  • Calcium - 25 mg
  • Iron - 0.69 mg
  • Magnesium - 22 mg
  • Phosphorus - 29 mg
  • Potassium - 151 mg
  • Sodium - 1 mg
  • Zinc - 0.42 mg
  • Copper - 0.09 mg
  • Manganese - 0.67 mg
  • Selenium - 0.2 mcg
  • Calories - 52

Health Nutrition Benefits of Eating Raspberries
  • Being rich in antioxidants, raspberry helps neutralize free radicals in the body and thus, prevents damage to cell membranes & other structures.
  • Raspberries can restrain proliferation of cancer cells and even the formation of tumors in various parts of the body, including the colon.
  • Daily consumption 3 or more servings of raspberry has been seen to lower the risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the main cause of vision loss in older adults.
  • The anthocyanins present in raspberry have been found to reduce the risk of heart disease and also delay the effects of aging.
  • The presence of salicylic acid in raspberries might slow down atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
  • Raspberry is a good source of quercetin, an antioxidant that diminishes the release of histamines and thus, minimizes allergic reactions.
  • Manganese and vitamin C, two antioxidant nutrients in raspberries, help protect the body tissue from oxygen-related damage.
  • Raspberry is one of the few fruits whose consumption would not have much effect on the body’s blood sugar levels.
  • Research has shown that regular consumption of raspberry is good for those suffering from inflammation and pain.

Quince

Quince is another fruit related to the apple and pear and the rest of the Rose family. They are a highly aromatic fruit, shaped like large, lumpy, yellow pears. Unripe fruit have a downy skin, while ripened fruit have the smooth texture of its relatives. Raw quinces are inedible, but they make excellent natural air fresheners. For instance, if a quince is kept in the glove compartment of a car, it will shrivel but will not rot, and will fill the car with a delicious aroma for up to six months.

Quinces originated in Turkestan and Persia, but are now grown all over Europe, as well as other parts of the world. It is speculated that quinces were the fruit referred to as "apples" in myths and legends. They were once widely grown in Britain from the 16th to the 18th centuries, but popularity has since declined. In Spain, they are still highly prized and are used to make a thick fruit paste called 'membrillo', which is made by boiling quince with sugar to make a paste. After cooling, it is cut into squares and served with soft cheeses. The French equivalent is known as cotignac. Quince cheese is similar to the paste, but softer and more spreadable. Quinces are also popular in Latin American countries, especially Uruguay, where there are large plantations devoted to their growth.

Quinces are never eaten raw, only cooked. Its flesh is hard with many seeds and too sour and astringent to eat raw, but its delicate flavour develops into something quite delicious if stewed with a sweetener. In order to help peel the skin easier, the quince can be parboiled for about ten minutes. When quinces are cooked, the heat and the acids in the fruit convert the colourless leucoanthocyanin pigments to red anthocyanins, thus turning its flesh from pale yellow to a pink or red. Cooking also transforms the strong unpleasant astringent taste to a more mellow flavour, halfway between that of an apple and a pear. Because of their high pectin content, found mainly in the skin, quinces make an excellent jelly. In fact, the Portuguese name for the quince is the origin of the English word "marmalade", a type of preserve originally made from this fruit.

In Persian cuisine, quinces and other sour fruits are often cooked together with meats. This combination is also found in Morocco and such parts of eastern Europe as Romania, as well as in Spanish cooking. However, it is Turkey where the quince is most often used. They distinguish the various kinds from "ekmek ayvasi", which is a roundish, yellow, sweet quince, and "limon ayvasi", which is larger, oblong, green variety with a sour flavour. The most common use for them in Britain is in the making of pastries, and are often added with apple to bring out a pinkish colour and an interesting flavour to the dish. Quince preserves were popular until quite recently, but remain of little interest to Americans. Several oriental quinces (genus Chaenomeles) are available in China and Japan. One variety is the Japonica quince, which is cultivated in Japan. These hard yellowish fruits are virtually inedible raw, but can be cooked and used like quinces. Their aroma is less intense, but they make good additions to pies and tarts, jellies, and quince cheese.